The Need For Sustainability In Malaysia Environmental Sciences Essay
The concerns of the environmental and the ecological conditions have led to the upcoming of constructing a more sustainable residential building in Malaysia. For the better growth of the coming future, there is need to observe environmental issues. Sustainable architecture also referred to as green buildings which are the design that uses natural building materials e.g. stones, earth, wood these don’t require treatment so no pollutant is released. These materials are more on the energy efficient and that makes little or no impact on the nature of the site and its resources.
Architectural sustainability is now becoming one of the major issues Malaysia is now facing. Sustainability in terms of architecture is a general term that describes environmentally conscious design techniques that which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainability seeks to balance the economic, social, and environmental impact, recognizing that population growth will continue. This brings the evaluation to design and construct industries, which have a significant potential to reduce the negative impact of human activities on the environment.
Currently, "sustainability" and "sustainable development" are extensively used terms in development projects, which have exercised a mounting pressure on planning, housing and urban guidelines. It is commonly established in this field that the foremost dimensions of sustainability are the economy, the environment, and society, and that they are related to each other in some manner (Macintosh and Wilkinson, 2006). Whilst in recent years social sustainability has gained an increased awareness, Colantonio (2008a, p.3) recognized social sustainability as "a fundamental component of sustainable development, becoming increasingly entwined with the delivery in sustainable community discourse and the urban sustainability discourse". Davidson and Wilson (2009) define social sustainability as a life-enhancing condition within communities, and a process within communities that can achieve that condition.
However, much is changing we are seeing a push to create spaces that do not require external energy to heat, cool and power them. There are efforts’ to reduce the use of material that have a high embodied energy and to increase the number of recycled material.
when we look at sustainability as it applies to architecture, there are several aspect of the building to that are important to consider such as economic, social and environmental.
Economic sustainability in terms of architecture is by the use of renewable material and natural energy from the environment as it is here for a life time, unlike using fossil fuels that emit carbon to the atmosphere. With the use of the natural environment it makes us save on costs as we do not require artificial energy to make our designs have the thermal comfort we may desire.
Social sustainability put in terms of architecture is another factor an architect should consider in his designs. This is by providing opportunities for balance and connectivity. Socially sustainable architecture fosters 1) balance between the individual and the collective and between the present and the future; and 2) connections between individuals within the building and between occupants and the surrounding community. The social benefits of sustainable design are related to improvements in the quality of life, health, and well-being.
When we talk about environmental sustainability related to architecture, this is by the use of the available energy around the place and making your design in connection with what is around you. This is to make your design in relation to the environment by considering the conditions of the area, such temperature levels; humidity levels, wind direction and site plain. sustainable architecture can still be put into practice so by maintaining the efficiency, beauty, layout and cost effectiveness. to obtain an environmentally sustainable oriented design five basic areas have to be observed, these are, healthy interior environment, energy efficiency, ecological building materials, building form and good design.
How to achieve a more sustainable design for residential house in Malaysia is now becoming issue the designer should consider and this is will reduce the negative impact on the environment, not only that, but has benefits to the occupants in the residential building. Sustainable design involves considering the entire life style of the building, looking at the environmental quality, functional quality and the future values into account environmentally initiatives of the construction. Sustainable
Architectural economic aspects are put into place so that a more sustainable building is achieved this is done by the observing the available material conservation, energy conservation and water conservation. Energy conservation is one of the most important aspects to looks, this is by reducing the building reliance of power on the external grid. It can by archived by designing a building that is more reliance to external lighting, heating and cooling. Using energy efficient appliances can greatly reduce the energy load of the building, often at times the appliances are too old as the may produce unnecessary heat. Most of the energy used in the homes is wasted mostly by the lighting, fans, electronic, air conditioners. Mitigating the energy loss in a building can be obtained by the creating a system that is can control the function and the power supplied to them.
Under the Ninth Malaysia Plan (2006-2010), affordable housing is categorized as both low-cost and low-medium-cost housing. The Ministry of Housing and Local Government made amendments in 2000 to classify the sale price of low-cost housing units in urban areas, which was previously set in 1982 and was never revised since (MHLG, 2002). It was previously set for households with monthly incomes not exceeding RM 750 (AU$246) (EPU, 2006; Idrus & Ho, 2008; MHLG, 2002).
Social aspects in the field of architecture should be put in consideration as this enhances the quality of life, health and well being. The building environment can have both negative and positive impact on the occupant’s quality of life. Talking of negatives effects which are illness, fatigue, discomfort, stress, and distraction resulting from poor indoor air quality, thermal conditioning, lighting, and specific aspects of interior space design. When these problems are reduced through sustainable design the health and performance improves. In addition to reduce the risk and discomfort in the building should contain features and attributes that create positive psychological and social experience. One other merging issue affecting buildings in the security.
Brimley et al. (2006) provided an operational explanation of social sustainability, where two ideas were identified at the core of social sustainability. Firstly, social equity issues or more collectively "sustainability of community" is fundamental to the concept. Secondly, the concept is concerned with the continued feasibility, health and performance of "society" itself as a communal entity; this is generally demonstrated under the heading "community". This is not to suggest that these two dimensions are completely independent of one another, merely, that this is a useful conceptual distinction. Examination of social sustainability at the urban development level requires both of these dimensions to be covered.
Malaysia is situated in the South China Sea within the South East Asian sub-region of Asia, and experiences tropical climate all year round (Tourism Malaysia, 2009). The climate ranges between 21Â°C to 32Â°C, with an annual rainfall of 2,000mm to 2,500mm, and a monthly mean relative humidity between 70 to 90% (Tourism Malaysia, 2009; Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation, 2009). Building design in the tropical region highly influence the comfort level of occupants (Kubota, Chyee & Ahmad, 2009).
Environmental sustainability in connection with architecture should be seriously considered. A comprehensive introduction to environmental controls for architectural design with concerns for sustainability rapidly changing the technological playing field, the romanticized depiction of architects as solitary artists confined to their drafting tables is becoming a thing of the past. More than ever, today’s architects must assume a leadership role in collaborative design that involves many professional interactions. This requires that architects have an all-inclusive understanding of the environmental concerns influencing their designs. Comprehensive and broad in scope, this designer-friendly guide delivers solid fundamentals from a historical perspective, covering environmental design topics that range from lighting, acoustics, thermal control, and plumbing to fire protection egress, elevators, and escalators. It shows how the interconnection between science and aesthetics holds the key to creating buildings that are structurally enduring and socially responsible.
Malaysian sustainability in residential building is now being put to practice. sustainable construction and climate based design provide some solutions to improve the built environments impact on the environment, particularly to reduce the usage of air conditioning systems and its carbon emission during its operation. Low-cost housing in Malaysia has significant potential to reduce its environmental impact by reassessing the current construction regulations as to make them more environmental and climate based design.
Low cost housing will continue to be part of Malaysian housing so as the low cost housing mandatory development is hold in place. Given the importance of providing affordable housing for the nation to sheer volume of demand, the need to conduct a performance baseline study of the existing building stock is a matter of urgency.