合作学习是指小组学习活动的组织方式，学习依赖于结构的社会交换理论的内容以及其他信息的学习者的特定群体之间，而每一个人的学习是为自己的学习负责（Tinker Sachs et al，2003）。此外，卡根（2002；1994）指出，合作学习，最终会导致在小组中的其他成员的学习增加。卡根（2002）认为，合作学习是一种良好的教学策略，促进多样化的学生群体学习是英语学习者尤其是有益的。诺伊斯（2010）进一步指出，英语学习者参与小组合作学习，不仅提高了英语语言的整体认识，他们还开发了学术内容更深的理解以及学术语言。从康明斯继续研究（2009）建议学生不同的学习能力，包括学习障碍，通过小组合作学习中发现的天然支架策略提高学生技能。
Cooperative learning is defined as any group learning activity organized in such a way that learning is dependent on the socially structured exchange of academic content as well as other information between the specific group of learners, and whereas each individual learner is accountable for his/her own learning (Tinker-Sachs et al, 2003). Furthermore, Kagan (2002; 1994) states that cooperative learning will ultimately lead to increases in the learning of other members in the group. Kagan posits (2002) that cooperative learning is an excellent teaching strategy that promotes enhanced learning for diverse student populations and is especially beneficial for English language learners. Noyes (2010) further states that English language learners participating in cooperative learning groups not only increase overall understanding of the English language, they also develop deeper understanding of academic content as well as academic language. Continuing research from Cummins (2009) suggest that students with diverse learning abilities, including students with learning disabilities improve their skills through the natural scaffolding strategies found in cooperative learning groups.
What is Cooperative Learning?
Cooperative leaning is essentially a teaching method that utilizes small groups of students or teams where, each student has a specific job or responsibility in the group. The teacher structures students of mixed ability levels in a small group, so that effective scaffolding for the English language learner will augment and enhance student learning. Students of different ability levels participate in a variety of learning activities designed by the teacher to improve their overall understanding of specific academic content or subject (Noyes, 2010; Kagan, 2002; Kagan, 1994). Additionally, each member of the team is responsible for a specific portion of the content, but is also compelled to help other members of the group learn the required content objective (Noyes, 2010; Kagan, 2002; Kagan, 1994). Even contemporary research suggests that cooperative learning creates favorable learning outcomes for English language learners (Murray, 2010). Furthermore, by assigning definitive jobs or tasks to each student, the group as a whole works through the assignment and/or project until each group member is able to successfully finish the activity and gain deeper understanding of activity (Noyes, 2010; Kagan, 2002; Kagan, 1994).
Cooperative learning has four basic principles with the acronym PIES. The P stands for positive interdependence, the I stands for individual accountability, the E stands for equal participation, and the S stands for simultaneous interaction (Kagan, 2002; Kagan, 1994). Kagan (1994) states that if any one of these four basic principles is not implemented, no cooperative learning will be involved. Therefore, it is essential that all four principles are utilized for the academic content area in order for cooperative learning to occur with fidelity. Therefore, it is crucial that the teacher fully understands the basic four basic principles and refrain from eliminating any of the key components of cooperative learning (Noyes, 2010; Kagan, 2002; Kagan, 1994).
Both Kagan (2002) and Sharan (2010) further state that the cooperative learning model leads to increases and expeditious understanding for English language learners because group oral discussions lead to increases in the use of the English language through both conversational dialogue as well as written language. By allowing students to use and maintain academic English conversations for students whose primary language is not English, their develop more meaningful experience with the English language, which in turn, leads to higher order thinking skills (Sharan, 2010; Shaaban, 2006; Tinker-Sachs et al, 2003).
Cooperative learning is quite different from the direct instruction teaching model, as well as other traditional pedagogies. Traditional instruction relies on the teacher to impart direct instruction or lecture to the students, while they sit passively, supposedly absorbing academic information in their brains, as well as understanding the English language. However, even though the teacher may be modeling academic English language throughout direct instruction, research indicates that there are far too few opportunities to use the English language for students whose primary language is not English. Also, with traditional teaching models, diverse learners have little opportunity to increase academic
Thesis Paper 代写:合作学习的优势