Physical Education Essay代写论文 :根据圣何塞州立大学猫的独特需求，对中年或老年女性的力量训练程序设计的相关因素进行了综述。首先，对人口数据的研究。其次，对女性身体的力量训练的影响进行了综述。然后进行有效的力量训练计划研究。最后，坚持因素进行了分析。
Factors associated with strength training program design for middle-aged or older women are reviewed in accordance with the unique needs of the CATS program in San Jose State University. First, research on demographic data is surveyed. Second, the effects of strength training on the female body are reviewed. Then effective strength training program research is covered. Finally, adherence factors are analyzed.
A Brief Review of Factors Associated with
Strength Training Program Design for
Middle-age or Older Women
In the San Jose State University’s CATS program, 95% of the clients are women. Additionally, most of the female client pool consists of middle age and older individuals. Thus, it is important to research the factors associated with successful strength training program for women. The purpose of this article is to review factors such as the physical activity pattern in women, the effects of resistance training in women, effective exercise programs for women, and factors related to exercise adherence for women.
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Digital database searches were conducted in the Academic Search Premier and SPORTDiscus databases through the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library’s (MLK) systems. Specific search terms such as strength training + women, and strength training + women + adherences were used. About a thousand hit were reported for each search term, but to due accessibility issues, some of the articles were not available in the MLK system. The articles that were available were further filtered according to their relevance to the purposes of this review.
Physical Activity Patterns
Before exploring the factors of a successful exercise program for women, it is important to understand the physical activity patterns of women. In 2008, Kruger, Yore, Ainsworth, & Macera, surveyed the physical activity patterns of 11,211 subjects in the United States (pp. 456-468). Their final study sample included 5238 women. In regards to the needs of this review, the relevant study results that they found were 42% of their female subjects engaged in around 60 minutes of lifestyle physical activity on 5 or more days per week (Kruger, Yore, Ainsworth, & Macera, 2008). Also, they found that “66% of women who were trying to lose weight reported using physical activity or exercise” (Kruger, Yore, Ainsworth, & Macera, 2008).
This impact of this survey on understanding the population demographics of CATS is significant. In accordance with the survey, it suggests that 100% of the female clients in CATS fall within the “66% of women who were trying to lose weight,” since they are in CATS actively exercising, and also due to the fact that all the female CATS clients request exercises that affect fat loss (Kruger, Yore, Ainsworth, & Macera, 2008).
Effect of Strength Training
Programs on the Female Body
In the next factor to account for when designing strength training program for women is the effect that strength training has on the female body. In 2009, Sillanpää, et al. studied the effects of strength and endurance training on the body composition, fitness, and metabolic health of middle-aged and older women (pp. 285-296). Their subject pool consisted of 64 female volunteers, aged 39-64 years old broken into an endurance training group (EG),strength training group (ST), combined strength and endurance training group (SEG), and a control group (CG). The subjects underwent a 21-week training program and were assessed for body composition, physical fitness, and metabolic rick factors. The researchers found that both EG and SEG produced significant benefits in cardiorespiratory fitness and small improvements in body composition and metabolic risk factors, but only ST produced improvements in neuromuscular fitness and lean mass of the legs (Sillanpää, et al., 2009).
Another relevant article is written by Kraemer, et al. in 2003. In it, the researchers studied the effects of resistance training on muscle hypertrophy in women (Kraemer, et al., 2003). The subject pool consisted of 85 untrained women divided into total-body training groups, TP and TH, upper body training groups, UP and UH, and a control group (CON). The subjects in TP and UP performed 3-8 RM exercises and TH and UH performed 8-12 RM of the same exercises for a period of 6 months. At the end of the experiment, the researchers found the all the experimental groups displayed increased strength, hypertrophy, and power. Additionally, they found that exercises that are done at 3-8 RM loading range “demonstrate a more systematic frequency of significant increases in more individual muscles over the entire training period” (Kraemer, et al., 2003).
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In the next article, the researchers examined the effects of 9 weeks of strength training and detraining on regional muscle in young and older men and women (Melnyk, Rogers, & Hurley, 2009). Their subjects consisted of 10 young women and 11 young men (20-30 years), and 11 older women and 11 older men (65-75 years). The subjects performed knee extensions with the dominant limb three times per week for 9 weeks. After the completion of the strength training phase, the subjects continued their normal lifestyle without any form of exercise for 31 weeks. The researcher found that “age did not influence regional cross-sectional area changes with strength training or detraining” (Melnyk, Rogers, & Hurley, 2009).
The implications that these three articles have on CATS is that strength training programs for female clients must have the end-goals of increasing neuromuscular fitness and lean body mass, and ought to be in the 3-8 RM loading range. Also, in order to increase respiratory fitness, improve body composition, and decrease metabolic risk factors, endurance training is better than low repetition strength training. Additionally, age is not a factor in the implementation of strength training programs.
Research on Strength Training Programs
After understanding the effect that strength training have on women, it is vital that research on effective strength training program is explored. In the first article, the researchers studied the effect of brisk walking and moderate resistance training on women who recently went through menopause (Asikainen, et al., 2006). Their subjects consisted of 134 women who recently went through menopause (2 to 10 years after the onset of menopause), divided randomly into three groups: one session group (E1), two sessions group (E2), and a control group (C). E1 group exercised once daily, and E2 group had their exercises fractionated into two sessions daily for 15 weeks. The resistance exercises for both experimental groups included: knee-ups, back touches, military presses, squats, back extensions, and abdominal crunches with rotation. Each exercise was performed for a single set with 10-20 repetitions. The researchers found that both experimental groups improved their lower-extremity muscle strength and walking speed equally. Additionally, the division of exercise into 2 daily sessions does not compromise the training effects in women who recently went through menopause.
In the next article, the researchers explored the influence of exercise order on the number of repetitions performed and perceived exertion during resistance exercise in women (Simao, Farintti, Poloto, Viveiros, & Fleck, 2007). Their subject pool consisted of 23 women (mean age = 24.2) divided into two groups. The first group (A) performed large muscle group exercises first, and then small muscle groups, the second group (B) performed the exercises in the reverse order. The researchers found the exercise that is performed last in an exercise sequence or training session will have its performance affected negatively, regardless of if it is a large muscle group exercise or a small muscle group exercise.
In this article, the researchers studied the association of exercise frequency and volume with change in body composition among postmenopausal women (Bea, Cussler, Going, Blew, Metacalfe, & Lohman, 2010). Their subject pool included 122 sedentary women (mean age = 56.3 years) who were randomly divided into three groups: exercisers, crossovers, and control. The crossover group consisted of women who were initially in the control group who were given permission to crossover and perform exercises that the exerciser group was tasked to perform. The experimental groups’ training consisted of 60-75 min progressive weight bearing exercises, such as leg presses lat pull downs, weight marches, seated rows, back extensions, one-arm military presses, wall squats, hack squats, torso rotations. The researchers found that high levels of weight bearing physical activity over a long term “are associated with stabilization of total and central adiposity, preservation of lean mass, and weight maintenance” (Bea, Cussler, Going, Blew, Metacalfe, & Lohman, 2010).
In this fourth article, the researchers studied the effects of a short term exercise program on bone tissue and muscular strength of osteopenic/osteoporotic postmenopausal women (Tolomio, Ermolao, Travain, & Zaccaria, 2008). Their subject pool consisted of 49 individuals divided into an exercise group and a control group. The experimental group exercised for 20 weeks which included 60 minutes sessions of callisthenic/isometric exercises, exercises with dumbbells, rubber bands, and exercise balls, and 45 minutes sessions of circuit training consisting of treadmill, leg extension, arm ergometer, horizontal leg press, stationary bike, and lat-machine. The researchers found that the experimental group displayed significant improvements in bone quality and leg strength.
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Strength training program design implications drawn from the aforementioned articles are significant to CATS. Firstly, exercise sessions can be fractioned into several miniature sessions without any adverse effects. As CATS is limited in operating time, one session can be divided and performed over two or more days. Secondly, the priority principle must be factored into program design as exercise order does affect performance. Thirdly, long term goals must be considered when designing a strength training program as long-term strength training exercise positively affects clients. Lastly, when clients who have osteoporosis request an exercise program, resistance exercise must be emphasized.
The quintessential question when designing a strength training program is how to ensure adherence? This is because even though the strength training program is customized perfectly for a client, it will not work unless that client adheres to the program. Ergo, exercise adherence in women must be understood when implementing a strength training program.
This article studied the adherence to a power-type strength training program in sedentary, middle-aged men and women (Surakka, Alanen, Aunola, Karppi, & Lehto, 2004). Their subject pool consisted of 226 middle-aged sedentary male and female volunteers. The subject performed a progressive training program over 22 weeks, starting with a basic physical training period, then period of strength and power training, and lastly a power-training period. The researchers found that employment played a significant factor in adherence. Also, for women age over 50 years and non-smoking behavior were associated with adherence.
In the next article, the researchers examined the factors related to older women’s adherence to strength training programs (Seguin, Economos, Palombo, Hyatt, Kuder, & Nelson, 2010). They surveyed 970 participants of the Strong Women Program, a nationally disseminated community strength training program, and 557 responses were received. They found that “participant age, lifetime physical activity level, and perceived overall health were positively associated with adherence” (Seguin, Economos, Palombo, Hyatt, Kuder, & Nelson, 2010). Also, women who experience more activity-limiting pain and less perceived health are less likely to adhere to a strength training exercise program.
The implication derived from the two articles mentioned above, is that factors such as socioeconomic level, age, perceived overall health, and activity-limiting pain affect exercise adherence in women. In practice, socioeconomic level and age cannot be changed by CATS, but the latter two factors can be. For perceived overall health, the most effective way to change a client’s conception is to point out the improvements that she has achieved. Comparing past performance with present performance is very effective in convincing the client that her health is improving. To counter activity-limiting pain, training can be altered to emphasize exercises which encounter little or no pain, yet at the same time rehabilitating the movement that encounters pain. Ergo, this will increase adherence as the activity-limited is lessened during training.
The CATS program presents a very small niche in the demographic of San Jose State staff and faculty as its participants are mostly made up of middle aged or older women. As strength training is suggested to be effective in increasing lean body mass, cross-sectional area, and offsetting bone mass loss associated with osteoporosis in women, it is important that it is implemented in accordance with the training techniques reviewed above. Additionally, adherence must also be accounted for during implementation and specific factors such as perceived physical level and activity-limiting pain must be tackled in order to increase adherence.