Physical Education Assignment 代写：攻击策略技术旨在提高运动员的唤醒和激活水平。攻击通常包括思想和增加心率作用，侵略性情感和积极的情绪状态。攻击策略增强肌肉力量的显示；增加觉醒水平，努力维护过程中的阻力，在疼痛允许更大的力量发展经验减少，增加注意力的技巧和浓度，改善运动导致增加肌肉的力量，提高训练旨在发展肌肉力量。
Psyching-up strategies are techniques designed to increase an athlete’s arousal and activation level. Psyching up usually consist of thoughts and actions that increase heart rate, feelings of aggression and a positive mood state. Psyching up strategies enhance the display of muscular force by; increased arousal levels, maintenance of effort during resistance, reduction in experience of pain allowing greater force development, increased attentional skills and concentration, improved kinematics which lead to increased muscular force, and improving training sessions aimed at developing muscular force.
Psyching up strategies enhance the display of muscular force by increasing arousal level (e.g. Leyton Hewitts “Come on, come on”). Oxendine (1970) demonstrated that an above average level of arousal is essential for optimal performance in gross motor activities involving strength, endurance and speed. Shelton and Mahoney (1978) demonstrated that psyching-up facilitated performance on a static strength task (hand dynamometer). In a similar study, the effects of psyching up on three different motor tasks were investigated by Weinberg, Gould, and Jackson (1980). The three tasks were dynamic balancing, dynamic leg strength and an arm movement speed task, with a significant improvement in dynamic leg strength. Gould, Weinberg and Jackson (1981) conducted another investigation in which they concluded that preparatory arousal and imagery were the best psyching-up techniques for enhancing dynamic leg strength. More recent studies by Edwards, Tod, McGuigan (2008) and Tod, Thatcher, Mc Guigan, (2009) have indicated that psyching up can enhance dynamic strength and power in the vertical jump. The display of muscular power in the upper body can also be improved by psyching up. In an investigation by Hatzigeorgiadis, Theodorakis, and Zourbanos, (2004) into throwing distance by water polo players, performance was improved by use of psyching up strategies prior to throw. Caudill, Weinberg, and Jackson (1983) reported that psych-up procedures used by sprinters enhanced performance. It’s clear that the use of psyching up strategies enhance the display of muscular force and rate of force development.
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During resistance training psyching – up strategies can be used reduce the experience of pain and feeling of fatigue. In cyclists the experience of pain and fatigue can be lessened by what cyclists say to themselves (Kress, 2006). Positive self-talk, such as, “I’m getting stronger with every set I complete”, “No pain no gain” and “Pain is good, suck it up with every rep” helps reduce perception of pain and increase motivation, build greater confidence, improve focus. Wilkes and Summers (1984), using an isokinetic exercise system, and Weinberg and Jackson (1985), using selected muscular endurance tasks (sit-ups, push-ups, pull ups), confirmed that psyching -up effectively increase muscular strength and endurance when used to psych up the athlete. An athlete who is less distracted by pain and highly motivated will display greater muscular force towards the end of a resistance training session or a game.
Athletes can use psyching- up to attain; the optimal activation level, desired rate of force production, reduction of pain, maintenance of effort, concentration, correct technique which are required to display the enhancement of force while executing various skills or lifts.
Caudill, D., Weinberg, R., & Jackson, A. (1983).Â Psyching-up and track athletes: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Sport Psychology, 5, 231-235
Edwards, Christian , Tod, and McGuigan, Michael(2008) ‘Self-talk influences vertical jump performance and kinematics in male rugby union players’, Journal of Sports Sciences, 26: 13, 1459 -1465
Hatzigeorgiadis, A, Theodorakis, Y, and Zourbanos,N. (2004) Self-talk in the swimming pool: the effects of self-talk on thought content and performance on water-polo tasks. Journal Applied Sport Psychology 16: 138-150
Kress, J.L., & Statler, T. (2006). A Naturalistic Investigation of Former Olympic Cyclists’ Cognitive Strategies for Coping with Exertion Pain During Performance.Â Journal of Sport Behaviour. 30,428-452
Oxendine, J. B. (1970). Emotional arousal and motor performance.Â Quest, 13,Â 23-32.
Shelton, A. O., & Mahoney, M. J. (1978). The content and effect of “psyching-up” strategies in weight lifters. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 2, 275-284.
Smith, D., Collins, D. & Holmes, P. (2003). Impact and mechanism of mental practice effects on strength. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1, 293-306
Tod, DA, Thatcher, R, McGuigan, M, and Thatcher, J. (2009) Effects of instructional and motivational self-talk on the vertical jump. J Strength Cond Res 23(1): 196-202,
Weinberg, R.S., Gould, D., & Jackson, A.V. (1980).Â Cognition and motor performance: Effects of psyching-up strategies on three motor tasks. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 4, 239-245.Â
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Weinberg, R.S., Gould, D., & Jackson, A.V. (1981).Â Relationship between the duration of the psych-up interval and strength performance. Journal of Sport Psychology, 3, 166- 170.Â
Weinberg RS, Jackson A, Seabourne T (1985) The effects of specific vs nonspecific mental preparation strategies on performance a mood sate. Journal Sport Behaviour; 8 175-80
Weinberg, R.S., Jackson, A. & Gould, D. (1984). Effect of association, dissociation and positive self-talk strategies on endurance performance. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, 9, 25-32.
Wilkes, R. L., & Summers, J. J. (1984). Cognitions, mediating variables, and strength performance. Journal of Sport Psychology, 6(3) 351-359.Â
2. Provide a summary of the research that has examined the influence of self-talk on motor skill performance, making specific reference to any studies that have focused on muscular force production.
Self-talk (ST) is the words an athlete says to themself. The ST can be either of the following; positive, negative, motivational or instructional. ST can be used to improve motor skill performance and muscular force production. In Table 1 the findings of research examining positive motivational and instructional self talk has been summarised.
Planned productive self-talk is an effective strategy for; psyching up emotion and effort, relaxation and calming down, attentional focusing, maintaining confidence, and self-reinforcement (Hardy, Gammage Hall 2001; Landin & Hebert, 1999). The effects of negative ST have been generally shown to hurt skill performance (Johnson-O’Conner & Kirschenbaum l986). Negative ST can lead to minimal performance decrements or to the extreme of where increased pressure leads to a performance breakdown (Leith l988).
Research indicates that different types of self-talk (e.g., instructional versus motivational) may be effective in enhancing different types of sport performance (e.g., precision versus power tasks (Hatzigeorgiadis, Theodorakis, & Zourbanos, 2004). Theodorakis, Chroni, Laparidis, Bebetos and Douma (2001) examined the effectiveness of cue-word ‘relax’ (to regulate speed and increase accuracy) or ‘fast’ (to enhance speed and reduce accuracy), when taking a shot at the hoop in basketball. Results showed that only the ‘relax’ cue-word group participants improved their performance significantly as compared to the ‘fast’ and control group participants by decreasing performers’ arousal levels and allowing them to lock on the target momentarily.
Table 1. Summary of Research that has examined the influence of self talk
Motivational Self – Talk
Instructional Self- Talk
â†‘ Skill Acquisition
â†‘ Static muscular strength
â†‘ Precision performing fine motor skills
â†‘ variables that influence performance
â†‘ power in gross motor skills
â†‘ Self confidence
â†‘ Focus on goals
â†‘ ability to focus and refocus or shift attentional focus
â†‘ Dynamic strength
â†‘ Improve game performance
â†‘ Maintain effort in muscular endurance tasks
â†‘ Precision task
â†“ Perception of pain
â†‘ Performance in power based sports
â†‘ Positive emotions
â†‘ Improved muscular power
Recently, Hatzigeorgiadis et al. (2004) investigated the function of motivational and instructional ST on a water polo precision and a power-throwing task. They reported that when throwing the ball at a target (precision task) both groups improved while instructional ST was reported by participants to be more effective than motivational ST. In the muscular force -task of throwing the ball for distance, only those participants using motivational ST improved significantly.Â The display of muscular power via instructional and motivational ST can be improved (Hatzigeorgiadis et.al 2004; Edwards, Tod, McGuigan 2008; Tod, Thatcher, McGuigan, 2009). Self-talk strategies can be used during hard training sessions to maintain effort, concentration and proper technique while executing the various skills needs (Smith, Collins & Holmes, 2003)
Edwards, C , Tod,D and McGuigan, M (2008) ‘Self-talk influences vertical jump performance and kinematics in male rugby union players’, Journal of Sports Sciences, 26: 13, 1459 – 1465
Hardy, J., Gammage, K., & Hall, C. (2001). A descriptive study of athlete self-talk. Sport Psychologist, 15, 306-318
Harwood, C., & Hardy, L. (2001). Persistence and effort in moving achievement goal research forward: A response to Treasure and colleagues. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 23,330-345.
Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Theodorakis, Y. & Zourbanos, N. (2004). Self-talk in the swimming pool: the effects of self-talk on thought content and performance on water-polo tasks. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 16, 138-150.
Johnson-O’Conner, E.J. & Kirschenbaum, D.S. (l986). Something succeeds like success-positive self-monitoring for unskilled golfers. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 10, 123-136
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Landin, D., & Hebert, E. P. (1999). The influence of self-talk on the performance of skilled female tennis players. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 11, 263-282
Leith, L.M. (1988). Choking in sports. Are we our own worst enemies? International Journal of Sport Psychology, 19, 59-64.
Smith, D., Collins, D. & Holmes, P. (2003). Impact and mechanism of mental practice effects on strength. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1, 293-306
Theodorakis, Y., Chroni, S., Laparidis, K., Bebetos, V. & Douma, I. (2001). Self-talk in a basketball shooting task. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 92, 309-315
Theodorakis, Y, Weinberg, R, Natsis, P, Douma, I, and Kazakas, P (2000).The effects of motivational versus instructional self-talk on improving motor performance. Sport Psychol 14: 253-272, 2000.
Tod, DA, Thatcher, R, McGuigan, M, and Thatcher, J. (2009).Â Effects of instructional and motivational self-talk on the vertical jump.Â Journal of strength and conditioning research(1064-8011),Â 23Â (1),Â 196
Section 3 – Dr Mike McGuigan
Resistance Training, Aging and Chronic Disease
1. Discuss the underlying mechanisms of sarcopenia and how resistance exercise can be an effective intervention for overcoming this condition.
Sarcopenia is a condition where neurons and muscle mass decrease with increase in age. The condition is influenced by the following factors; neuromuscular, hormonal , nutritional, immune system and disuse. Table 1 summarises the underlying mechanisms of sarcopenia and the effects of resistance exercise for overcoming this condition.
Table 1. Underlying Mechanisms of Sarcopenia and Effects of Resistance Exercise
Effect of Increasing Age
â†“ Hormonal stimulation (growth hormone, IGF-1, Testosterone, estrogen)
Loss of motorneurons, denervation of muscle fibres
â†‘ non-contractile tissue in muscle
â†“ Physical activity
Bed rest, immobilisation
â†‘ IL-6 and â†‘ TNF-Î±
Stress-induced inflammation: Life events, depression, Disease
The neuromuscular causes of sarcopenia are; the loss of neural input into the muscles, decreased ability of satellite cells to propagate themselves, decrease in the size and number of muscle fibres, decreased length of muscle fibres and poor pennation angle. As a result of the changes in the muscle, weakness is experienced. Resistance training has the following benefits; improved power and rate of force production (McCartney, Hicks, Martin 1995), slight hypertrophy (Urso, Manfredi, and Fiatarone 2001), increased motor unit activation (Häkkinen, Alen, and Komi, 1985), increased satellite cell activation (Suetta et al., 2004a; Barry et al., 2005). Increased satellite activation is essential since the satellite cells play an important role in maintenance, hypertrophy, and repair of adult muscle (Allan, Roy & Edgerton 1999). No physical activity or disuse has been shown to play a major role in the mechanism of sarcopenia (Hakkinen and Hakkinen 1995).
The hormonal factors are; decreased synthesis of growth hormone (GH), decrease testosterone, reduction insulin-like growth factor – I (IGF-I) and other hormones and growth factors that are likely to contribute to anabolism and maintenance of strength and muscle mass in older people (Greenlund & Nair 2003 ). The reduced synthesis of these muscle anabolic factors is a major contributing factor to the progressive loss of muscle mass with age (Doherty 2003). The inclusion of resistance training into an elderly persons lifestyle increases the production of IGF-1 and mechano growth factors (Urso, Manfredi, and Fiatarone, 2001: Brandon, Boyette Lloyd , Gaasch 2004; Fiatarone, Singh 2002) The neuromuscular benefit of increased growth hormones is the reduced loss of motor units and promotion of motor neuron survival (Messi and Delbono 2003; Hakkinen 2001).
Several studies demonstrate that elderly persons with higher concentrations of circulating IL-6 and TNF-alpha show lower muscle mass and muscle strength (Visser et.al 2002; Dohery 2003). Elevated IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels correspond with a chronic low grade inflammatory profile (Krabbe, Pedersen, Bruunsgaard 2004). The problem is that TNF-alpha and IL-6 have a catabolic effect and are related to severe muscle wasting or cachexia (Krabbe et.al 2004). Resistance training improves ratio of TNF-Î±: IL-6, which promotes the anabolic effects of IGF-1 and insulin thereby improving muscle mass, promotion of motor neurons, preventing loss of muscle leading to enhanced mechanical loading tolerance ( Visser et.al 2002).
Allan DL, Roy RR & Edgerton VR (1999) Myonuclear domains in muscle adaptation and disease. Muscle Nerve 22 1350-1360
Barry BK, Warman GE, Carson RG (2005) Age-related differences in rapid muscle
activation after rate of force development training of the elbow flexors. Exp Brain
Res 162: 122-132.
Brandon LJ, Boyette LW, Lloyd A, Gaasch DA (2004) Resistive training and long-term function in older adults. J Aging Physical Activity 11: 10-28.
Doherty TJ (2003) Invited review: Aging and sarcopenia. J Appl Physiol 95:1717-27
Fiatarone Singh M (2002) Exercise comes of age: Rationale and recommendation for a geriatric exercise prescription. J Gerontol 57A: 262-282.
Frontera WR, Hughes VA, Fielding RA, Fiatarone MA, Evans WJ, Roubenoff R. (2000) Aging of skeletal muscle: a 12-yr longitudinal study. J Appl Physiol 88:1321-1326.
Greenlund LJ, Nair KS. (2003) Sarcopenia-consequences, mechanisms, and potential therapies. Mech Ageing Dev 124: 287-99.
Häkkinen, K., Alen, M. and Komi, P.V. (1985) Changes in isometric force- and relaxation-time, electromyographic and muscle fiber characteristics of human skeletal muscle during training and detraining. Acta Physiologica ScandinavicaÂ 125,Â 573-585
Hakkinen K, Pakarinen A, Kraemer WJ, Hakkinen A, Valkeinen H, Alen M (2001)
Selective muscle hypertrophy, changes in EMG and force, and serum
hormones during strength training in older women. J Appl Physiol 91:
Hakkinen K, Hakkinen A.(1995) Neuromuscular adaptations during intensive strength training in middleaged and elderly males and females. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 35: 137-147.
Krabbe KS, Pedersen M, Bruunsgaard H. (2004) Inflammatory meditaors in the elderly. Exp Gerontol 39:686-99
McCartney N, Hicks AL, Martin J (1995) Long-term resistance training in the elderly: Effects on dynamic strength, exercise capacity, muscle, and bone. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 50:97-104, 1995
Messi ML, Delbono O (2003) Target-derived trophic effect on skeletal muscle innervation in senescent mice. J Neurosci 23:1351-1359
Singh, NA, Clements KM, Fiatarone MA (1997) A randomised controlled trail of progressive resistance training in depressed elders. J Gerontol 52:27-35
Suetta C, Aagaard P, Rosted A, Jakobsen AK, Duus B, Kjaer M, Magnusson SP.
(2004) Training-induced changes in muscle CSA, muscle strength, EMG, and rate
of force development in elderly subjects after long-term unilateral disuse. J
Appl Physiol 97: 1954-1961.
Urso, M.L.,Manfredi, M.A (2001). Fiatarone, Skeletal muscle IGF-I receptor localization and quantitation following resistance training in the frail elderly. Med Sci Sports Exercise. 33:S187
Visser M. Pahor M, Taaffe DR, Goodpaster BH, Simonsick EM, Newman AB. (2002) Relationship of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha with muscle mass and muscle strength in elderly men and women. J Gerontol A Bio Sci Med Sci 57:326-32
2. For a chronic disease of your choice, discuss how this population would benefit from resistance training and any specific needs that must be considered in the program design. Include a brief outline of a 12 week program you would recommend for this population
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycaemia and disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism (Zierath, Krook, Wallberg-Henriksson 2000). Diet, exercise (aerobic and resistance training) and weight loss are important part of diabetes management to improve glycemic control, reduce muscle wasting and mortality (Turner, Millns, Neil 1998). The effects and benefits of resistance training for Type 2 Diabetics are summarised in Table 1.
Table 1. Effects and Benefits of Resistance Training for Type 2 Diabetics
â†“ C-reactive Protein (Brooks Layne, Gordon, Roubenoff, Nelson, Castaneda-Sceppa 2007)
â†‘ Fat free mass (Ibañez; Izquierdo, Argüelles Forga 2005)
â†“ Abdominal adiposity and improved hip to waist ratio (Castaneda, Layne, Munoz-Orians, Gordon 2002)
â†“ Systolic blood pressure (Castaneda, Layne, Munoz-Orians, Gordon 2002)
â†‘ Glucose tolerance (Eriksson, Taimela, Parviainen, Peltonen, Kujala 1997)
â†“ Free fatty acids (Saltiel 2001)
â†‘ Hypertrophy of type I muscle fibers (Newmam, Haggerty, Goodpaster 2003)
â†‘ greater oxidative and mitochondria capacity, and higher capillary density (Kelley, Goodpaster, Storlien 2002)
â†‘ Blood glucose control (Eriksson, Taimela, Parviainen, Peltonen, Kujala 1997)
From the summarised research in Table 1, resistance training for a type 2 diabetic enhances their health and well-being. The resistance training program must take into consideration the specific needs outlined in Table 2 below. This helps prevent illness and injuries occurring.
Table 2. Specific Needs that must be Considered in Program Design
Special Consideration During Resistance Training
1. Check blood glucose prior to resistance training
2. If blood glucose < 100mg/dL, then eat 15 to 20 g carbohydrate 15 to 30 minutes of training or sooner if symptoms present
3. Recheck blood glucose after 30 minutes of training
4. Exercise 1-2 hours after eating
5. Avoid exercise during insulin peak time
6. Always have medication and snack consisting of least 25 grams carbohydrates readily available.
7. Check blood glucose after exercise; if blood glucose < 60mg/dL, then eat 15 to 20 grams glucose.
Based on; Horton E (1988) The role and management of exercise in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 11(2) 201-9, and Soukup J, Maynard J, Kovaleski (1994) Resistance training guidelines for individuals with diabetes. The Diabetes Educator 20;129
A twelve week resistance training program should include initial training frequency of two to three times a week with days rest between workouts. Sessions including thirty minute strength training, preceded by ten minute warm-up and five minute cool down. General full body exercises; seated cable rows, bench press, leg press, shoulder press, leg curls, with three sets of eight repetitions and high intensity. Progressive training protocol – weekly increases in intensity with reduced intensity in week 5 and 9 to minimise risk of injury and over training. Training intensity during wks 1-6 of 60-80% of baseline 1-repetition maximum (1RM), during wks 7-12 of 70-80% of mid-program testing 1RM.