墨尔本理工大学代写Assignment:孕产妇死亡健康状况分析

墨尔本理工大学代写Assignment:孕产妇死亡健康状况分析

墨尔本理工大学代写Assignment:孕产妇死亡健康状况分析

健康是一个人或一组能够应付人际、社会、生物和物理环境(世界银行,2004)的程度。健康是一种日常生活的资源,而不是生活的目标。它是一个积极的概念,包括社会和个人资源,以及身体和心理的能力。健康融资是提供优质医疗服务的一个关键输入。

政府一直有一个突出的作用,在克服公共健康风险,这是一个主要领域的关注,在欠发达的国家,如肯尼亚(史葛,2001)。良好的健康提供满足人类的基本需求之一,有助于保持和提高人的生产力显著(Owino,1997)。公共卫生服务的公共支出是人力资本的一项重要投资,对经济的增长起着促进作用,使人们能够实现他们的全部潜力,并过上富有成效的生活。在人类健康重要性的认识,一个肯尼亚政府的主要目标,自独立以来一直为市民争取足够的质量和良好的卫生保健(斛,1965)。

为了解决发展中国家的健康结果,如肯尼亚,联合国儿童基金会的倡导者增加公共卫生支出(联合国儿童基金会,2006)。因此,在发展中国家的许多国家都增加了他们的健康支出随着时间的推移。例如,为了实现更好的健康结果,肯尼亚增加了卫生支出从这一切都。这一切都在2000到119亿。200亿在2004增幅为30%,如图1.1所示(斛,2007)。但更多的资源并不一定导致更好的健康结果,因为卫生保健支出是唯一有助于健康结果的因素很多,考虑到这些资源可以转化为不同的项目可能不会直接影响健康结果。政府的健康支出和健康结果之间的联系,因此可能不一定是存在的。首先,公共卫生支出的增加,可能会导致私人健康支出的减少,一个家庭可能会转移其资金对其他用途,一旦政府增加其提供的基本医疗保健。第二,增量的政府支出可以采用的是密集型的,而不是广泛的利润率。密集的支出的一个例子是,如果昂贵和低生产率的投入与边际基金购买,在这种情况下,这些支出对健康结果的影响可能是小的。第三、即使额外资金,广泛应用于医疗保健(例如更多的人员在医院,充足的备货,但药物)的配套服务,包括内部和外部的卫生部门,不存在(例如缺乏道路或运输到医院和诊所,补贴价格的药物,增加政府卫生支出等)的影响可能很少或没有(公司,2002)。

墨尔本理工大学代写Assignment:孕产妇死亡健康状况分析

Health is the extent to which an individual or group is able to cope with the interpersonal, social, biological, and physical environments (World Bank, 2004). Health is therefore a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. It is a positive concept embracing social and personal resources as well as physical and psychological capacities. Health financing is a key input in the provision of quality healthcare.

Governments have always had a prominent role in overcoming public health risks and this is a major area of concern in less developed countries like Kenya (Scott, 2001). The provision of good health satisfies one of the basic human needs and contributes significantly to maintaining and enhancing the productivity of the people (Owino, 1997). Public expenditure on health services therefore is a key investment in human capital and plays a catalytic role in the growth of the economy by enabling people to achieve their full potential and lead productive lives. In recognition of the importance of human health, one of the Kenya government’s major goals since independence has been to achieve adequate and good-quality health care for all citizens (GOK, 1965).

To address health outcomes in developing countries such as Kenya, UNICEF advocates for increased public expenditure on health (UNICEF, 2006). Therefore, many countries in developing countries have increased their health expenditure over time. For example, to achieve better health outcomes, Kenya has increased its health expenditure from Kshs. 11.9 billion in 2000 to Kshs. 20 billion in 2004 representing a 30% increase as shown in Figure 1.1 (GOK, 2007). But more resources alone may not necessarily lead to better health outcomes because health care expenditure is only one of the many factors that contribute to health outcomes, considering the fact that these resources may be channeled to various projects that may not directly influence health outcomes. The link between government health expenditures and health outcomes may therefore not necessarily be present. First, an increase in public health expenditures may result in a decrease in private health expenditures; a household may divert its funds towards other uses once the government increases its provision of basic health care. Second, the incremental government expenditures may be employed on the intensive rather than the extensive margin. An example of intensive expenditures would be if expensive and low productivity inputs are bought with marginal funds in which case the impact of these expenditures on health outcomes may be small. Third, even if extra funds are applied extensively to health care (e.g. more staff at hospitals, adequate stocking of medications), but complementary services, both inside and outside the health sector, are not there (e.g. lack of roads or transportation to hospitals and clinics, subsidized prices for medication, etc.) the impact of extra government health expenditures may be little or none (Wagstaff, 2002a).

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