Marketing Essay 代写 The Influences Of Information Technology
随着数字技术的进步，如Web 2，经济环境已经发生了很大的变化。大多数贸易活动都发生在互联网上。因此，传统的营销策略面临着严峻的挑战。顾客在购物前会通过社交网络与他们的同龄人进行交流，而传统策略的影响似乎已经减弱了。正常的营销形式在很大程度上改变了在营销环境中出现的神经科学。市场营销的演变是从品牌为主，客户为主的时期发生的，但这种转变也包含几个不利因素。Marketing Essay 代写 The Influences Of Information Technology
Marketing Essay 代写 The Influences Of Information Technology
With advances in digital technology, such as Web 2.0, the economic environment has considerably changed. Most trade activities are occurring on the Internet. As a result, traditional marketing strategies are faced with severe challenges. Customers will communicate with their peers via social networks before shopping, and the effects of traditional strategies seem to have weakened. The normal form of marketing has largely changed with neuroscience appearing in the marketing environment. A marketing evolution which is changing from a brand-predominated to customer-predominated period is occurring, but this transition also contains several unfavourable elements.
Although some disadvantages have been caused, digital technologies (i.e. digital information technology and neuroscience) applied in marketing will clearly boost the evolution of marketing in from the perspectives of data analysis, customer insights and the developing direction of marketing. This essay will firstly analyse the influence of digital information technology on marketing, including marketing data, theory and practice, and then will evaluate these influences on from both favourable and adverse perspectives. Secondly, customer insights on the effects of neuroscience on the evolution of marketing will be considered, and will assess the debate related to neuromarketing including its potential development. The final part will provide the conclusion of this essay and will include predictions for the further evolution of marketing.
Dawn of the Digital Age
Information technology has developed rapidly in recent decades. After the data collection age of the 1960s, data-driven technology stepped into data access era in the 1980s when databases were built to record information. Subsequently information technology experienced a period of rapid evolution, from data navigation in 1990s to data mining in 2000s (Rygielski et al., 2002). Meanwhile, web-driven technology became prevalent as a result of Web 1.0 which led to Web 2.0 and then perhaps Web 3.0 or even Web 4.0 in the future. These considerable advances in digital information technology obviously affect the evolution of marketing from the perspectives of marketing data analysis, marketing theory and marketing practice. Meanwhile, the effects have led to favourable opportunities and severe challenges.
The influences of information technology
Customer data analysis has become increasingly important and complex since marketing research combined digital technology. Hauser (2007) demonstrated that data analysis has remained concerned with whole customer lifelong life cycles, and companies utilise technology not only for statistics, which might include analysing customer data to acquire information about potential customers and customer preferences or recording customer purchase behaviours, but also for forecasting customer behaviours and decisions. Additionally, he points out that standard demographic and behavioural data are now adopted to establish “customer DNA profile” for marketing research and analysis through the methods of segmentation and profiling. In the web era, data can be recorded and collected in various ways, including blogs, podcasts, emails and online communities. Therefore, social recommendation engines are used by enterprises, like Amazon, to record customers’ purchases and browse their behaviours and then recommend information (e.g. a discount sales) in advance to specific customers (Porta et al., 2008).
As for marketing direction, with the enormous development of information technologies, marketing has entered a different field and the principles and theories of marketing have changed remarkably. Marketing is experiencing the evolution of “brand to brain”, and has become a world of customers. Specifically, traditional mass marketing has shifted to a type of reverse marketing where the customer has began to predominate (Sharma and Sheth, 2004). Marketers cannot change customers’ minds or just put products in sales to achieve their goals, instead, under the explosive and pervasive use of technology, the supreme goal has focused on customer satisfaction and companies have to adjust their products to become market-driven products in order to satisfy customer demands (McKenna, 1991a; McKenna, 1991b). Additionally, Sharma and Sheth (2004) have argued that information technology focuses on marketing processes rather than marketing functions.
Another change is seen in marketing strategies where despite the traditional marketing strategies of the “Ps”, new principles for marketing in the digital age have been defined (McKenna, 1991a; Tapscott and Williams, 2010). These new principles emphasise the important roles that both technology and customers play in marketing. In particular, Tapscott and Williams (2010) have highlighted that companies should not and cannot remain private in an interdependent environment, and so in order to become competitive, they need to collaborate and share information with others and their customers as well as establish trust with the public. Collaboration and communication are becoming increasingly essential for transnational companies (Porta et al., 2008).
Aside from the marketing theories mentioned above, marketing practice has also to adapt to the new marketing environment. Marketing itself has shifted from traditional marketing, which is mass market, to a one-to-many market and then a one-to-one market (Pitta, 1998). Karakas (2009) has suggested that marketers need to change their traditional marketing models to innovative and collaborative models. Despite the conception of brand, companies have increasingly focused on customer value. Customers were regarded as data when marketers wanted to acquire customers at the beginning of the data-driven technology period, and but then this shifted to customer relationship management (CRM), as marketers needed to retain existing customers, especially when the web technology developed (Sheth, 2002). Today, with the development of Web 2.0, a new type of customer focus is customer engagement management (CEM) in which customers become interactive with firms and engage in product activities (Sheth, 2002).
Web-based marketing is a more interactive and accurate approach to tracking and keeping customers. With the prevalence of Web 2.0, new approaches (CEM), such as customer advocacy, have to be used in the digital marketspace (Constantinides and Fountain, 2008). Gillin (2007) indicated that peer reviews can lead to increased customer trust rather than expects reviews, as a result, companies are encouraged to fulfil customer requirements by encouraging customers to share their experience of products on a Web 2.0 platform (e.g. Blogs) as a way to promote the products. Marketers, for example, can create corporate blogs and podcasts or corporate accounts on social media, such as Facebook and Twitter, and thereby provide customers with online communities to review their products (Constantinides and Fountain, 2008).
Indeed, personalisation is increasingly prevalent in marketing practice. Customers can participate in the design of their products (e.g. choosing preferred colours), and marketers can increase customer feelings towards company products and inspire customer loyalty by this approach (Constantinides and Fountain, 2008). Likewise, it has been suggested that some customers engage in the improvement of product quality or the content of the community, such as Wikipedia, and this method which is called “crowdsourcing”, has the advantages of both maintaining customer loyalty as well as appealing to new customers (Porta et al., 2008).
Opportunities and challenges
The movement of information technology provides favourable opportunities to undertake marketing data analysis as well as contributing to the evolution of marketing theory and practice. Data is becoming easier to collect particularly with the development information technology and especially the adoption of the Internet. Under the Internet environment, Kiani (1998) has indicated that data collection will not be a problem, since capturing customers’ footprint is a considerable advantage of web technique, and as a result, customer information lists can easily to be built through the recording of customer information by computers.
Furthermore, advanced information techniques lead marketing to become more economic. Although investments in technology (e.g. CRM system) are high, these costs are fixed and sales costs will be reduced through the digital marketspace (Sharma and Sheth, 2004). According to Pitta (1998), an interactive and interdependent platform (i.e. one-to-one market) with firms and customers is established in the Web 2.0 world, and as a consequence, marketers can reduce their costs and enhance customer satisfaction and finally achieve higher profits and customer value. Likewise, social recommendation engines can contribute to maintaining customer loyalty and will lead to customers spending money on similar products, as well as reducing the search costs (Porta et al., 2008).
In addition, marketing is becoming globalised as the barrier of geography is no longer a problem with the rise of web 2.0. An awareness of geography is reduced when people use the Internet, because instead of visiting real stores, they can communicate with companies and conveniently order products through the Internet (Sharma and Sheth, 2004). Likewise, not only does wireless technology make it easy to connect information worldwide, but also there is a global convergence of the various social media (Karakas, 2009). Companies, therefore, can broaden their market from a national to international size.
However, marketers are also faced with enormous challenges, such as data accuracy and information safety, in the crowded information environment. One challenge is the accuracy of data since data measurement and data mining are becoming essential tools for marketing research to analyse and predict customer behaviour. The wrong information will mislead and impact on marketing decisions and strategies, which could cause severe crises within firms. Meanwhile, if data is misclassified this can cause similar company operation issues. To address these issues, the process of data collection and data mining should be kept intimate, accurate and instant (Hauser, 2007). With information technology having advanced dramatically, these technological questions will gradually be resolved. Another challenge is the safety of customer information. With the dissemination of online trade, customers are providing much personal information on the Internet, which can cause a global problem of information divulgence. Firms, therefore, need to take responsibility for securing the privacy of customer information.
Germination of neuromarketing
With the substantial advances in neurotechnologies, neuroscience has been applied to various subjects such as neuroeducation and neuroeconomics (Fisher, Chin, and Klitzman, 2010). Neuromarketing, as a branch of neuroeconomics has developed since 2002 and provides an opportunity to research insights into the customer brain more deeply (Fugate, 2007). Hubert and Kenning (2008) have defined neuromarketing as “the application of the findings from consumer neuroscience within the scope of managerial practice.” Neuromarketing, as an interdisciplinary, uses neurotechnology to
The basic techniques used in marketing to research customers’ physiological reactions are electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (Fugate, 2008; Morin, 2011). Surprisingly, an investigation of 16 companies that offered neuromarketing services found that only 5 offered fMRI and around half had an EEG service, while three quarters used other techniques (Fisher, Chin, and Klitzman, 2010). Despite the lack of neuromarketing theory and practice, neuromarketing is increasingly attracting the attention of both academia and enterprises and will influence the development of marketing from the perspective of customer insights, and marketing practice, whilst there are intense debates centred on the application of neuromarketing.
The influences of neuroscience
The application of neuroscience in marketing may lead to a challenge for existing marketing theory and practice, which may need to be changes and improvements (Hubert, 2010). The appearance of digital information technology brings marketing to the field of the customer as data era while the application of neuroscience in marketing will lead to the period of the customer being a neural mechanism. Marketers can measure customer preferences in ways which couldn’t even have been imagined in traditional marketing.
According to its current applications, neuroscience plays a considerable role in deepening marketers’ understanding of customer emotions and behaviour. Most customers are involuntary and do not clearer know what their own preferences are when making a purchase, and so advertising investments in the past may make no sense and so the task of companies is to understand customers’ decision-making related to buying (Martin, 2009). Customer preferences may be affected by some other elements (e.g. brand). A typical example is the “Pepsi paradox” which has been tested by several expects (McClure et al., 2004, Koenigs and Tranel, 2008). Therefore, the insights of unconscious elements, which influence customer behaviour attract the attention of marketers. Neurotechnologies make it possible to find which emotions will affect customer behaviour, and, as a result firms can correct and improve their marketing strategies and decisions in order to retain customer loyalties (Fugate, 2008; Lee, Butler and Senior, 2010).
It has been found that the price and brand can influence customer decision-making. Koenigs and Tranel (2008) have indicated that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) in brain reacts to brand information. Likewise, the investigation by Plassmann et al. (2008a) demonstrated that brand effects will influence customer decision-making. They found that parts of the VMPC and anterior cingulate (AC) activate the brand and decision signals, respectively. Furthermore, Fugate (2008) has pointed out that price policy will become more effective in the environment of neuromarketing. Knutson et al. (2007) have utilised the technique of fMRI to analyse the effects of price policy on customer preferences in the brain, and their results indicated that high prices will activate the insula cortex while the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) will reflect a low price. Hubert and Kenning (2008) obtained similar findings. Marketers, therefore, may be able to provide more appropriate prices to attract customer attentions which may impact on customer purchase behavior.
Debates of neuromarketing
Although marketing is just stepping into the neural field and neuromarketing is still in an immature era, proponents believe that it will increasingly influence and change marketing in the following years or decades. Fugate (2008) has claimed that neuromarketing will improve the proportion of marketing success. The combination of neuroscience and marketing will help marketers to make precise decisions by understanding customer behaviour more deeply (Hubert and Kenning, 2008). A possible reason is that data describing customer emotions and behaviours is more accurately collected from neuroimaging rather than that from other marketing methods. Another explanation is the advantages in cost and speed as neuromarketing will simplify the processes related to marketing research (Ariely and Berns, 2010). Moreover customers will also benefit from neuromarketing by recognising and understanding their own thoughts regarding the products (Hubert and Kenning, 2008).
However, there are a number of grave problems that are faced by neuromarketing, as well as further doubts being expressed related to the aspects of its science, economics and ethics. A technological issue is the small samples of the neuroimaging tests, which will decrease the accuracy of the results (Fugate, 2008; Hubert, 2010). The reason for this may be the excessive cost of the experiments (Hubert and Kenning, 2008). Similarly, as for small companies, the high cost is the main economic problem in the applications of neuroscience. From the ethical perspective, the techniques of neuroimaging may impact on customer privacy as customers’ emotions are exposed to the researchers during the neuroimaging tests. However companies offer little information to their customers. Only a quarter of the samples reported giving any information to clients and one had cost information as reported in the investigation by Fisher, Chin, and Klitzman (2010). Hence, corresponding policies should be issued to protect customers and should require companies to improve the transparency of neural tests. Moreover, research firms should take responsibility if they cause damage to the experimenters.
Although it seems impossible to acquire information from unborn customers’ behaviour by neuroscience, current research in the neural field lays a solid foundation for future development and it will be widely applied in the future (Fugate, 2007). Fugate has predicted that neuroscience will benefit managers in order to make better decisions. Ariely and Berns (2010) have suggested that further work should take into account “how marketing works”. Meanwhile, the concept of creative marketing is proposed in order to more accurately understand customer emotions (Ozdemir and Koc, 2012).
To conclude, the applications of digital information technology and neuroscience have several problems related to data accuracy, information privacy, and ethics. Nevertheless, I am convinced that the advances of both digital information technology (e.g. data mining and Web 2.0) and neuroscience (e.g. fMRI) have helped to actively promote the evolution of marketing. In particular the channels and analysis methods of marketing data have broadened with the application of data-driven and web-driven technologies. Indeed, neuroscience brings marketing to a new world in that customer feelings could be measured, which will provide comprehensive views of customer insights. These two categories of technologies are extensively changing marketing theory and practice. The evolution of marketing has witnessed a shift from “brand to brain”, traditional brand-based marketing changed to data-based marketing and has then moved into relationship marketing. Nowadays, marketing has experienced a shift to another fresh and stimulating field which is neuromarketing.
The expectation of marketing in the digital age is that the range of the applications of digital information will be broadened and policies will be developed and perfected in the coming years. Meanwhile, although there is still no unanimous consensus on neuromarketing, it seems to be a potential direction for marketing practice. More practical and scientific neural technologies will be created and it seems possible that a broader range of companies and organisations will apply neuroscience in order to analyse human emotions and behaviours.