论文代写 Canadian merchandise exports to the united states

论文代写 Canadian merchandise exports to the united states

由于经济的很大一部分是出口自然资源,国际贸易对加拿大有很大的影响。

58%的出口占自然资源,包括农业、能源、林业和矿业。

在2009个出口占加拿大GDP的30%

美国是最大的贸易伙伴,占出口额的73%和进口的63%。论文代写 Canadian merchandise exports to the united states

省领导给予了支持,因为他们可以从水电、销量巨大的油、气、猪和牛。

它实际上是成功的高价值行业,如汽车,机械和工业产品,不像什么是预测。

北美自由贸易协定实施以来,加拿大的贸易已经上涨了80%

Â1998,独自成长在加拿大的我们的北美市场的出口大致相当于我们对日本的出口总额和15国的欧洲联盟(欧盟)的结合。

北美自由贸易区拥有4亿4410万人口,其中3330万居住在加拿大,3亿410万在美国,1亿670万在墨西哥。

三国商品贸易增长了近两倍自北美自由贸易协定生效于1994。Â它超过1兆美元的2008。

五在加拿大工作,一个是与国际贸易。这样,北美大陆的合作无疑是一个重要的竞争优势,为加拿大

在世界上最大和最多元化的经济体,美国,是一家世界领先的电脑、医疗设备、航天、和服务业包括金融服务、电信、和农业。

在短短几年内,墨西哥的出口已从最初的石油多元化,包括一系列的制成品,使墨西哥成为世界上最大的出口国之一。

从NAFTA成员加拿大进口也在过去的五年中显着增加,特别是机械设备、通讯设备、汽车设备。从加拿大的进口总额的北美自由贸易伙伴的进口份额达到69.4% 1998。

论文代写 Canadian merchandise exports to the united states


Research – Trade is vital to the growth of the Canadian economy

International trade affects Canada greatly because a large part of the Canadian economy is exporting natural resources.

58% of exports are accounted in natural resources which include agricultural, energy, forestry and mining.

In 2009 exports accounted for 30% of Canada’s GDP

The United States is the largest trading partner accounting for 73% of exports and 63 % of imports.

Provincial leaders gave support because of the huge sales they can get from hydroelectric power, oil, gas, hogs and cattle.

It’s actually been successful in high value sectors like automotive, machinery and industrial goods, unlike what was predicated.

Since the implementation of NAFTA , Canada’s trades have gone up 80%

 In 1998, the growth alone in Canada’s exports to our NAFTA markets was roughly equal to the total value of our exports to Japan and to the 15 nations of the European Union (EU) combined.Â

The NAFTA region is home to 444.1 million people, 33.3 million of whom live in Canada, 304.1 million in the United States, and 106.7 million in Mexico.

Trilateral merchandise trade has nearly tripled since NAFTA came into force in 1994.  It topped $1 trillion in 2008.Â

One in five jobs in Canada is linked to international trade.  As such, the North American continental partnership is without a doubt an important competitive advantage for Canada.

The largest and most diversified economy in the world, the United States, is a world leader in computers, medical equipment, and aerospace, and in services including financial services and telecommunications, and in agriculture.Â

Within just a few years, Mexico’s exports have diversified from primarily oil to include an array of manufactured products, making Mexico one of the largest exporters in the world.

Imports to Canada from NAFTA members have also increased significantly over the past five years – particularly for machinery and equipment, communications equipment and automotive equipment. The share of imports from the NAFTA partners in Canada’s total imports reached 69.4% in 1998.

Diagram 2.0: Canadian Merchandise imports from the United States

An important benefit of the NAFTA for Canada has been the much improved access to the Mexican market.

Canadian firms have been able to expand sales in sectors that were previously highly restricted, such as automotive products, financial services, trucking, energy and fisheries.

Also, Canadian exports have become steadily more diversified, with value-added manufactured products accounting for the largest share of total exports to Mexico in 1998.Â

Over the past few years, a number of studies and assessments have addressed the issue of the impact of the NAFTA on the North American economy. On the whole, these reports show that the effects of the NAFTA have been positive.

Many Canadian production hubs are actually closer to target U.S. markets than American production sites.

Of Canada’s 20 largest cities, 17 are within an hour and a half drive of the United States and many are much closer.

Production locations in Quebec and the industrial heartland of south-western Ontario are often closer to the huge American markets around New York, Boston, and Chicago than popular American production hubs like Atlanta, GA, and Raleigh, NC.

Fast and efficient trucking, railways, ocean shipping and air services link the two countries.

To accommodate the growth in trade and commerce, Canada and the United States have signed a pact to work together to create a Smart Border.

Canada ships 87 percent of its merchandise trade exports to the United States, and receives 63 percent of the goods it imports from the United States.

On the flip side, 23 percent of U.S. merchandise exports go to Canada, and 18 percent of the goods the United States imports come from Canada.

All tariffs affecting agricultural trade between the United States and Canada, except for a few items covered by tariff-rate quotas, were removed by Jan. 1, 1998, which resulted in a major finical boost for Canadian farmers.

Canada is the No. 1 market for U.S. agricultural exports, purchasing $8.7 billion worth in calendar 2002, and exports were forecast to reach $9.4 billion in 2003.

Canada gained the most from NAFTA with Canada’s GDP rate at 3.6%, growing faster than the United States at 3.3% and Mexico at 2.7%.

Canadian employment levels have also shown steady gains in recent years, with overall employment rising from 14.9 million to 15.7 million in the early 2000s.

Even Canadian manufacturing employment held steady.

One of NAFTA’s biggest economic effects on U.S.-Canada trade has been to boost bilateral agricultural flows.

 In the year 2008 alone, Canada exports to the United States and Mexico was at CAN$381.3 Billion Dollars and imports from NAFTA was at CAN$245.1 Billion Dollars.Â

 If anything, Canada has seen the strongest gains, though again it is difficult to attribute direct causation, particularly given that Canada and the United States had a free trade deal that predated NAFTA.Â

 The U.S. Department of Agriculture offers a sector-by-sector review of U.S.-Canada trade since NAFTA’s implementation, which shows broad increases in trade in several different sectors.

Research carefully. Cite your sources.Â

Research – Free trade benefits only “big business”

Big Businesses benefit most from NAFTA.

What they’ve done is start setting up shop in Mexico along the border so they can manufacture things using legal and cheap Mexican labour and then just ship it north to the States.Â

In addition, it benefits agribusiness because they flood Mexico with farm products and Mexican farmers just can’t compete with the low prices and are forced out of the Market.Â

It gives US citizens cheap stuff and Mexicans cheap stuff, but the result is less jobs in the States (but they would have went to Asia anyway) and hard conditions for Mexicans who used to be farm workers.

These Mexicans move north to find jobs in the factories or cross into the US illegally.

The United States government tends to praise the success of NAFTA while American working people typically believe “NAFTA has thus far largely failed” and in fact has had a negative impact on many businesses.

Analysts agree that NAFTA has opened up new opportunities for small and mid-size businesses.

Mexican consumers spend more each year on U.S. products than their counterparts in Japan and Europe, so the stakes for business owners are high.

Most of the studies of NAFTA concentrate on the effects of U.S. business with Mexico. Trade with Canada has also been enhanced, but the passage of the trade agreement did not have as great an impact on the already liberal trade practices that America and its northern neighbour abided by.

Some small businesses were affected directly by NAFTA.

In the past, larger firms always had an advantage over small ones because the large companies could afford to build and maintain offices and/or manufacturing plants in Mexico, thereby avoiding many of the old trade restrictions on exports.

In addition, pre-NAFTA laws stipulated that U.S. service providers that wanted to do business in Mexico had to establish a physical presence there, which was simply too expensive for small firms to do.

Small firms were stuck-they could not afford to build, nor could they afford the export tariffs.

NAFTA levelled the playing field by letting small firms export to Mexico at the same cost as the large firms and by eliminating the requirement that a business establish a physical presence in Mexico in order to do business there.

The lifting of these restrictions meant that vast new markets were suddenly open to small businesses that had previously done business only in the United States.

This was regarded as especially important for small businesses that produced goods or services that had matured in U.S. markets.

Small firms interested in conducting business in Mexico have to recognize that Mexican business regulations, hiring practices, employee benefit requirements, taxation schedules, and accounting principles all include features that are unique to that country.

Small businesses, then, should familiarize themselves with Mexico’s foundation of business rules and traditions-not to mention the demographics culture of the marketplace-before committing resources to this region.

 The elimination of various trade sanctions, such as the requirement to establish a presence in a country before one can do business, opened markets to smaller businesses that hitherto could not afford them.

Furthermore, given that Mexican consumers purchase more United States goods than countries outside of North America, the ratification of NAFTA meant the exponential expansion of various markets that were otherwise largely inaccessible.

Other reported benefits include improved investment opportunities and the elimination of trade hindrances, but, by and large, the utmost perceived benefit is the aggregate North American economy.

As a global economy continues to coalesce, it is necessary to develop as firm as stronghold as possible in global market share.

Without the development of larger entities such as North America under NAFTA and the European Union, the emergence of a completely globalized economy could result in problems including market stagnation and monopolies.

Prepare a two page summary of the information you have discoveredÂ

that shows the reality of what has happened with respect to each of the

two arguments that you have chosen. (four pages total, use images

where appropriate)

Summary – Trade is vital to the growth of the Canadian economy

International trade affects Canada greatly because a large part of the Canadian economy is in exporting natural resources and 58% of exports are accounted in natural resources which include agricultural, energy, forestry and mining. In 2009 exports accounted for 30% of Canada’s GDP. The United States is the largest trading partner accounting for 73% of exports and 63 % of imports. Provincial leaders in Canada like Ontario and Alberta gave support because of the huge sales they can get from hydroelectric power, oil, gas, hogs and cattle. Many people assumed that some sectors would suffer greatly due to NAFTA but it’s actually been successful in high value sectors like automotive, machinery and industrial goods, unlike what was predicated. Since the implementation of NAFTA, Canada’s trades have gone up 80%; the growth alone in Canada’s exports to our NAFTA markets was roughly equal to the total value of our exports to Japan and to the 15 nations of the European Union (EU) combined. The NAFTA region is home to 444.1 million people, 33.3 million of whom live in Canada, 304.1 million in the United States, and 106.7 million in Mexico. The three way merchandise trade has nearly tripled since NAFTA came into force in 1994 and topped $1 trillion in 2008. One in five jobs in Canada is linked to international trade due to NAFTA which results in larger employment rates and increasing economy.  As such, the North American continental partnership is without a doubt an important competitive advantage for Canada to have growth in its economy. The largest and most diversified economy in the world is the United States and they are at the top for products like computers, medical equipment, and aerospace, and in services including financial services and telecommunications, and in agriculture. Without NAFTA this market would be non-beneficial to Canada and one of our largest trading partners in the world would decrease which in turn would decrease the Canadian economy greatly. Within just a few years, Mexico’s exports have diversified from primarily oil to include an array of manufactured products, making Mexico one of the largest exporters in the world and Canada had the same effect which impacts the standard of living and more importantly the economy. Imports to Canada from NAFTA members have also increased significantly over the past five years – particularly for machinery and equipment, communications equipment and automotive equipment. The diagrams below show Canadian merchandise exports to the United states and Canadian merchandise imports to the United States increasing after NAFTA was in place , which directly impacts the Canadian dollar and the Canadian economy.

C:\Users\Harrie\Desktop\Canadian Merchandise Exports to the United States.jpg

Diagram 1.0: Canadian Merchandise Exports to the United States

C:\Users\Harrie\Desktop\Canadian Merchandise imports from the United States.jpg

Diagram 2.0: Canadian Merchandise imports from the United States

An important benefit of the NAFTA for Canada has been the much improved access to the Mexican market. Canadian firms have been able to expand sales in sectors that were previously highly restricted, such as automotive products, financial services, trucking, energy and fisheries as mentioned earlier. Also, Canadian exports have become steadily more diversified, with value-added manufactured products accounting for the largest share of total exports to Mexico. Over the past few years, a number of studies and assessments have addressed the issue of the impact of the NAFTA on the North American economy. On the whole, these reports show that the effects of the NAFTA have been positive. Many Canadian production hubs are actually closer to target U.S. markets than American production sites. Accessibility is high because out of Canada’s 20 largest cities, 17 are within an hour and a half drive of the United States which means that companies can have trades faster and much easily than before NAFTA. The increase in trades will result in more profits being made for Canadians and that in turn will increase the Canadian economy like a chain effect. Production locations in Quebec and the industrial heartland of south-western Ontario are often closer to the huge American markets around New York, Boston, and Chicago than popular American production hubs like Atlanta, GA, and Raleigh, NC. Fast and efficient trucking, railways, ocean shipping and air services link the two countries which also increase trade. To accommodate the growth in trade and commerce, Canada and the United States have signed a pact to work together to create a Smart Borders. Canada ships 87 percent of its merchandise trade exports to the United States, and receives 63 percent of the goods it imports from the United States. On the flip side, 23 percent of U.S. merchandise exports go to Canada, and 18 percent of the goods the United States imports come from Canada. All tariffs affecting agricultural trade between the United States and Canada, except for a few items covered by tariff-rate quotas, were removed by Jan. 1, 1998, which resulted in a major finical boost for Canadian farmers. Canada is the No. 1 market for U.S. agricultural exports, purchasing $8.7 billion worth in calendar 2002, and exports were forecast to reach $9.4 billion in 2003.Canada gained the most from NAFTA with Canada’s GDP rate at 3.6%, growing faster than the United States at 3.3% and Mexico at 2.7%. Canadian employment levels have also shown steady gains in recent years, with overall employment rising from 14.9 million to 15.7 million in the early 2000s. Even Canadian manufacturing employment held steady. One of NAFTA’s biggest economic effects on U.S.-Canada trade has been to boost bilateral agricultural flows. In the year 2008 alone, Canada exports to the United States and Mexico was at CAN$381.3 Billion Dollars and imports from NAFTA was at CAN$245.1 Billion Dollars.  If anything, Canada has seen the strongest gains, though again it is difficult to attribute direct causation, particularly given that Canada and the United States had a free trade deal that predated NAFTA. The U.S. Department of Agriculture offers a sector-by-sector review of U.S.-Canada trade since NAFTA’s implementation, which shows broad increases in trade in several different sectors.

Summary – Free trade benefits only “big business”

Big Businesses benefit most from NAFTA. What they’ve done is start setting up shop in Mexico along the border so they can manufacture things using legal and cheap Mexican labour and then just ship it north to the States. In addition, it benefits agribusiness because they flood Mexico with farm products and Mexican farmers just can’t compete with the low prices and are forced out of the Market. It gives US citizens cheap stuff and Mexicans cheap stuff, but the result is less jobs in the States (but they would have went to Asia anyway) and hard conditions for Mexicans who used to be farm workers. These Mexicans move north to find jobs in the factories or cross into the US illegally. The United States government tends to praise the success of NAFTA while American working people typically believe “NAFTA has thus far largely failed” and in fact has had a negative impact on many businesses. Analysts agree that NAFTA has opened up new opportunities for small and mid-size businesses. Mexican consumers spend more each year on U.S. products than their counterparts in Japan and Europe, so the stakes for business owners are high. Most of the studies of NAFTA concentrate on the effects of U.S. business with Mexico. Trade with Canada has also been enhanced, but the passage of the trade agreement did not have as great an impact on the already liberal trade practices that America and its northern neighbour abided by. Some small businesses were affected directly by NAFTA. In the past, larger firms always had an advantage over small ones because the large companies could afford to build and maintain offices and/or manufacturing plants in Mexico, thereby avoiding many of the old trade restrictions on exports. In addition, pre-NAFTA laws stipulated that U.S. service providers that wanted to do business in Mexico had to establish a physical presence there, which was simply too expensive for small firms to do. Small firms were stuck-they could not afford to build, nor could they afford the export tariffs. NAFTA levelled the playing field by letting small firms export to Mexico at the same cost as the large firms and by eliminating the requirement that a business establish a physical presence in Mexico in order to do business there. The lifting of these restrictions meant that vast new markets were suddenly open to small businesses that had previously done business only in the United States. This was regarded as especially important for small businesses that produced goods or services that had matured in U.S. markets. Small firms interested in conducting business in Mexico have to recognize that Mexican business regulations, hiring practices, employee benefit requirements, taxation schedules, and accounting principles all include features that are unique to that country. Small businesses, then, should familiarize themselves with Mexico’s foundation of business rules and traditions-not to mention the demographics culture of the marketplace-before committing resources to this region. The elimination of various trade sanctions, such as the requirement to establish a presence in a country before one can do business, opened markets to smaller businesses that hitherto could not afford them. Furthermore, given that Mexican consumers purchase more United States goods than countries outside of North America, the ratification of NAFTA meant the exponential expansion of various markets that were otherwise largely inaccessible. Other reported benefits include improved investment opportunities and the elimination of trade hindrances, but, by and large, the utmost perceived benefit is the aggregate North American economy. As a global economy continues to coalesce, it is necessary to develop as firm as stronghold as possible in global market share. Without the development of larger entities such as North America under NAFTA and the European Union, the emergence of a completely globalized economy could result in problems including market stagnation and monopolies.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Canada

http://www.international.gc.ca/trade-agreements-accords-commerciaux/agr-acc/nafta-alena/fast_facts-faits_saillants.aspx?lang=eng

http://www.international.gc.ca/trade-agreements-accords-commerciaux/agr-acc/nafta-alena/nafta5_section04.aspx?lang=en

http://investincanada.gc.ca/eng/advantage-canada/nafta-advantage.aspx

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3723/is_1_16/ai_114328141/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_American_Free_Trade_Agreement

http://www.cfr.org/publication/15790/naftas_economic_impact.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_trade_debate#Sociopolitical_arguments_against_free_trade

http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20100928161637AA9PnYt

http://www.epinet.org/briefingpapers/nafta01

http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/small/Mail-Op/North-American-Free-Trade-Agreement-NAFTA.html

http://www.naftaworks.org/benefits-of-nafta.php

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