1。在城市环境中的军事行动代表了非常具有挑战性和复杂的事业与重叠的环境，基础设施和人口的考虑，已经提前在研究中。这些是高度多样化的性质和范围的范围和复杂性，从孤立的犯罪/恐怖行为，通过组织城市叛乱，一心想在国家社会政治转型，迫使传统的冲突在主要战区战争水平。[ 1 ]在所有这些情况下，直升机有能力发挥的重要作用，是显而易见的，从以前的章节中的各种案例研究。直升机是唯一的资源，在现代战场上所需的每一个功能和它的灵活性和适应性的灵活性之间的相互作用将是至关重要的“混合”活动的未来。[ 2 ]因此，直升机需要被视为一个决定性的军事力量的工具，可以有效地进行城市战。
2。直升机可以在城市环境中的各种角色，因为他们提供快速的流动性减少的战斗空间，使一个快速响应。攻击直升机可用于精确定位以及灭火，也可以协助ISR和使用传感器和无线电通信高级套房。另一方面，直升机可以提供一个独特的优势，将人员和武器系统在关键时刻的关键时刻，以惊喜和压倒敌人，也可以运输所需的供应城市地区，可能是不可访问的地面运输。[ 3 ]然而，直升机在城市作战中的主要作用是支持地面部队的作战行动。根据美国陆军野战手册上的诸军兵种联合作战在城市地形，航空部队在城市外围有效提高分离、侦察、补给、部队移动，疏散和火力支援地面部队。[ 4 ]该手册将直升机在城市地形所设想的作用分为以下几类[ 5 ]：—
1. Military operations in urban environments represent extremely challenging and complex undertakings with overlapping environmental, infrastructure, and population considerations as has been brought out earlier in the study. These are highly diverse in nature and range in scope and complexity from isolated criminal/terrorist acts, through organised urban insurgency bent on national socio-political transformation, to force-on-force conventional conflict at the major theatre war level.  In all these scenarios, helicopters have the capability to play a vital role as is evident from the various case studies in the previous chapter. Helicopters are the only resource with the flexibility to swing between every function required in the modern battlefield and its qualities of flexibility and adaptability would be critical in the ‘hybrid’ campaigns of the future.  Thus helicopters need to be viewed as a decisive instrument of military force that can effectively prosecute urban warfare.
2. Helicopters could be employed in a variety of roles in an urban environment as they provide rapid mobility in a reduced battle space enabling a quick response. Attack helicopters can be used for precision targeting as well as suppression fire and can also assist with ISR and communications using their advanced suite of sensors and radios. On the other hand, lift helicopters can provide a distinct advantage by placing personnel and weapon systems at critical locations at critical times to surprise and overwhelm the enemy and can also transport needed supplies to urban areas that may be inaccessible to ground transportation.  However the main role of helicopters during urban operations in any conflict is to support operations of the ground forces. As per US Army Field Manual on ‘Combined Arms Operations in Urban Terrain’, aviation forces operating on the urban periphery effectively enhance isolation, reconnaissance, resupply, troop movement, evacuation, and support by fire for ground forces.  The manual divides the roles envisaged for helicopters in urban terrain into following categories  :-
(a) Assess. Helicopters can observe from the highest of ‘high ground’ and, thereby, expand the situational awareness of friendly forces at all levels. These could be employed to identify portions of the urban area essential to mission success by providing reconnaissance capability to establish enemy strength and disposition as well as route and area reconnaissance for manoeuvre of ground forces. They can also be employed to augment communication and surveillance capabilities and enhance Command and control by operating as relay stations.
(b) Shape. Helicopters could be employed to shape the urban battle space in offence as well as defence. In offence, these could be employed in areas to attack in order to isolate objective area, move troops and supplies, enhance C2, conduct reconnaissance and augment ground forces. In defence, these could be used to avoid isolation by acting as a manoeuvre element to set the conditions for the main battle. These could be employed for indirect fires, Close Air Support (CAS) and suppressive fires in support of ground manoeuvre and security elements as well as for direct fires to destroy key targets and enemy elements attempting to escape, resupply, or reinforce the urban area.
(c) Dominate. Helicopters could also be used to precisely mass the effects of combat power in order to rapidly dominate an area by providing manoeuvre and support assets in consonance with ground commander’s intent and scheme of manoeuvre. They could help ground forces in initially securing a foothold and thereafter clear an objective by performing an air assault to insert infantry elements as well as by engaging high priority targets influencing point of penetration with precision direct fires.
(d) Transition. Helicopters also play an important role in transition of an urban area from military control to control of another agency and in follow-on operations as well as stability and support missions. Towards this helicopters could be utilised for screen or area security, aerial surveillance, casualty evacuation and a show of force.