The History Of The Homeland Security Criminology Essay
Government has many organs that enables achieve its mandate. The homeland department in the United States of America is very important in enhancing the security situation in the United States. The papers discuss the department in details under different perspectives.
The federal government of the United States has a department called Homeland security. It was created in response to the attacks of September in the United States of America (Parker, 2003). It major aim is to protect the United States of America as well as the Territories of the United States. The other responsibilities include responding to attacks from terrorist, accidents created by man besides disasters that occur naturally. It can be compared to the internal ministries of some countries. The defense department has the responsibility of the actions of the military abroad. The sphere that involves the civilians of the United States work with the Homeland security department to provide security internally within the states as well as outside the borders of America. It prepares, responds and prevents emergencies that can occur domestically. The ultimate aim is preventing terrorism (WHO, 2002).
For the department of Homeland security to effectively work, it had to absorb some other organs of the government in the United States of America (Simone, 2002). This includes the department of immigration. The other department that was included was that of naturalization service. This has enabled it to share some of the responsibilities based on its composition. The agency that is concerned with enforcement of customs as well as Immigration. The other organs are concerned with issues of citizenship and issues of immigration. The division in charge of investigation and gathering intelligence as well as service customs came together to form Homeland security in charge of investigations (Guzman, 2002). The immigration naturalization service ensures that functions in the borders are enforced. The specific immigration and naturalization functions include patrolling on the borders, Services that ensures inspection of plants and animals. These services have been brought together under the homeland security department to form the United States organ for border as well as customs protection (Sloan, 2002).
The home land security department is currently holding the third position in terms of size. This is after the defense and affairs veteran s departments (Sloan, 2002). It has a council at the white house which ensures that the activities are well co ordinate .The council is called the council of home land security. The homeland security is thus a vital organ in the United States of America. This is because besides providing security services in the country, it also has brought together different government agencies for a common purpose (Stephen, 2003). These agencies have ensured that the unity and harmony prevails in the United States of America. For effective functioning, the United States has employed some techniques for it to ensure that its operations proceed well without disturbances.
This one of the techniques the department of homeland security has adopted in order to deal with terrorism and enhance security in the United States (WHO, 2002). This includes reasoning that starts from a specific observation to generalization of the whole idea. This technique has been used by the homeland security to explore the measures that can be put in place by the United States government to ensure that security prevails within and outside the borders (Stephen, 2003). This has enabled them develop high ant terrorism terrors like the one that hit the united states in September in the year 2001.The other applications of the law was when the attorney general said that officers that enforce laws to be given powers to arrest immigrants that violated the laws regarding immigrations (Sloan, 2002). The immigrants had been observed as being reluctant to interact with the officials that brought justice in the United States. The police officers feared that if more laws were enacted against them, they would not show up at all. They would not report any crimes and unlawful behaviors among them. This would lead to more crimes commitment among the law makers with no one to report to the officers in charge of enhancing the law.
Universities like Indiana have also employed this reasoning in dealing with anti terrorism. They proposed that law enhancing officers should patrol throughout the United States so as to enhance surveillance in the matters of security (Stephen, 2002). This improved the numbers of crimes that were being committed in the country. In addition; they recommended that the police should use methods that are very investigative in all procedures involved in reducing crimes. This would be enhancing by engaging more police officers in the patrols. The use of technology has also been recommended by the top learning institutions in an attempt by the homeland security to deal with crimes. This includes using softwareâ€™s that can be used to recognize the faces of the people (Sloan, 2002). In addition, computers were to be used to scan the email messages so that any message that may distort the security situation is handled effectively.
Deductive reasoning is the exact opposite of inductive reasoning. This technique has been used by the department of homeland security to ensure peace is maintained in the United States of America (Stephen, 2002). It employs a generalized approach in dealing with insecurity particularly terrorism. This is by ensuring security surveillance is extended outside the borders. This approach is called the top down and it starts from the unknown until the situation on the ground is confirmed. Under this reasoning, the homeland security department starts its work from a theory. From the theory it formulates a few hypotheses that will act as guide based on the existing evidence. Then there is observation of the security situation on the ground. The final stage is usually the confirmation of the facts about the security situation in the country. This techniques is procedural and has enabled the homeland security to trap criminals who are may not be targeted using the inductive approach. To achieve this, the homeland security has ensured that there are trained security officers that can help in combating terrorism in the United States of America. They say that if deductive approach had been used, the nuclear attack that was witnessed in the south of Indiana would not have been experienced (Parker, 2002). This is because they had put some generalized mechanism that would have helped in reducing the severity of the attack if not limiting it totally. More officials were thus trained to enable them respond to the victims of the war. They have embarked on sealing loop holes in all places that are seen vulnerable to attacks by terrorists.
Rule based approaches
Rules help in governing a country in regards to all sorts of issues. The rules can be applied in regard to issues like terrorism, political instability and the general rules concerning the activities of a nation (Parker, 2002). The United States has employed a lot rules in dealing with terrorism. Some of the rules include those that prohibit the use of nuclear weapons. These rules have been enforced by the department of home land security. The other rules that have been imposed are those regarding immigration as well as substance abuse. In fact, they tried and arrested the criminals that lead to the bombings in 2001 and 2007 in accordance to the law. The laws also state that no one is guilty until proven guilty (WHO, 2002). The rules have made other nations trust that the United States of America is a state that employs a justice system in transparent ways. This has also been seen it the ways it deals with its citizens who engage in criminal activities outside the America.
Right based concepts
Every government has an obligation to provide some rights to its citizens. These rights are stipulated in the constitution (Stephen, 2002). The department of Homeland security is an organ in the government of the United States of America that ensures that the citizens are protected from terrorism. It thus works to ensure that peace and stability prevails in the United States of America. Besides the obligation to provide security to its citizens, it ensures that the food consumed by the citizens is free from any form of contamination. It achieves this by the plant and animal health inspectorate. They thus struggle to both ensure the right to safe nutritious food and peace prevails in the country. The homeland department enhances that the food is defended too (Parker, 2003). This responsibility has been to the department of Homeland by the United States Federal state for Agriculture. This is to ensure those consumers, food manufacturers and the entire players in the food industry works towards ensuring safe human food to the citizens.
The presidents of The United states of America have issued many directives towards ensuring the defense of the food (Guzman, 2002). For example, President Bush issued directives to the department of Homeland security to enhance more surveillance on food safety and food security. This is an attempt to ensure that citizens are entitled safe and nutritious foods.
Utility based approach
The department of homeland security helps to reverse the vulnerability to attacks. In addition, it helps to reduce the consequences the result because of the attacks (WHO, 2002). This helps in preventing attacks from occurring. To reduce an attack requires that the probability of the attack occurring is significantly reduced…This means that the criminals intending to carry out an attack have to really plan. This will increase the cost of planning the attack. If the cost of planning the attack exceeds the thresholds that attack may not be executed. Since the exact threshold is quite unknown, the aim of home land security has been to make the cost unattainable by the attackers. This makes it so expensive for the attackers to carry out their activities (Simone, 2002). The surveillance system in the United States of America is well established making it impossible for the attackers to penetrate. The utility approach is thus based on the probability of increasing the chances of the attackers failing.
Persuasion scientific continuum
The Homeland security has adopted a lot of techniques in dealing with the global security. They have greatly reduced the use of nuclear weapons in countries that can promote the use of such weapons in the terrorism (Stephen, 2002). For example, they have banned the use of nuclear weapons in Iraq. To achieve this, they had to order for mass destruction of nuclear weapons in Iraq. They persuaded the country to do so at will. This enhanced the use of persuasion in reducing the use of science and technology in reducing the bad effects of nuclear weapons (Simone, 2002). Other countries that have seen the same legislations imposed on them include countries like Iran and Palestine. This has helped in reducing the manufacture of deadly weapons like atomic bombs.
The emotional appeals have been made by the department of homeland security to the other organizations of the world in regard to security situations. This has been achieved through the leaders to the United Nations (WHO, 2002). For example, emotional appeals were encouraged by people whose activities were not favored by the law. As a result, they appealed to the people who were being targeted so that they can win their case. This would help in restoring some balance in the entire procedure. The entire would especially Asian countries are appealing to the Obama regime to reduce the use of nuclear weapons. Their argument is that the world has become a safe place to live in. However this is just a strategy by the opponents to help in reducing the strength of homeland department in reducing attacks. This is a great issue that the homeland security has looked into seriously in order to come up with more things to do.
Fact and analysis
The information system by the homeland security system is by analysis of every detail in order to find some factual information before beginning any mission (Sloan, 2002). The main focus is the analysis of facilities of chemicals in a particular country assess its impact on security issues.They after assessing these facilities, they evaluate the impacts such facilities can have on the populations living around the that particular location. They also gather enough evidence concerning a particular crime and come with some findings that are factual about the crime.Thus; the Homeland security department ensures that all the activities it engages in are based on facts but not any assumptions.
So what principle
The homeland department s engaged in very many activities in the United States of America. This ensures that all the issues pertaining to its mandate are properly addressed (Simone, 2002). This ranges from those within the United States to those outside. This requires different principles and techniques to be applied to a particular case. This usually leaves the department with the question of which principle should be applied to a particular circumstance. This has made the department employ a lot of principles to handle all the questions that are under its mandate. Their success has been because they have been able to identify different techniques that can be applied to a particular situation.
The homeland department has constantly been comparing the attitudes of the employees in regard to how it handles some of its activities. Other issues are how their ranks affect their work out put as well the decisions they make (Guzman, 2002). This is very important in improving the efficiency of the entire organization which houses several other organizations. Comparison is also made with other agencies of the government in other countries how they handle issues related to security. This can be done either at the local and international level. This can help them improve their efforts in the work place (WHO, 2002). From comparison; it is evident that the employees from the department of Homeland are the less motivated. This is one way that has been used in improving the morale of such citizens.
The homeland department looks at the causes of particular problems in the docket of jurisdiction. The major causes of insecurity in the world are thus bio-terrorism and nuclear attack (Stephen, 2002). The Homeland department has developed some systems that are used to determine the root causes of problems. Other techniques of analysis are tree analysis techniques for events, effect analysis and fault tree analysis
Credibility in the work of the homeland security is achieved by doing things in a transparent way. This ensures that they apply the rule of law in all their undertakings (WHO, 2002). In addition, they avail to the public all their undertakings in the pursuit to attain a world that is secure.
In conclusion, the homeland department has a crucial role in the economy of the United States. This range from providing security to its citizens to ensuring the the right to food is also adhered to. Its proper co ordination is what has enabled achieve the desired functions.