弗林德斯代写Assignment:美国的肥胖

弗林德斯代写Assignment:美国的肥胖

弗林德斯代写Assignment:美国的肥胖

不同于传统的减肥方法,饮食和运动,有助于人们慢慢减肥,每周一至两磅,减肥手术结果快速减肥开始放慢时间。事实上,体重失去,如果快速开始与被认为是帮助使患者能够成功的饮食的变化,也鼓励患者锻炼,因为他们看到他们的体重和健康的变化。这些程序是无法修复的,但被认为是工具在试图打击肥胖。减肥手术曾被认为是一个大手术,对肥胖患者的最后一招,在其他试图减肥失败了,也是一个非常危险的手术经历。但是,减肥手术是一种常见的程序和更危险,因为在外科技术在手术技术和改进创新。

胃旁路手术和胃捆扎术是有效的在一个人的体重指数减少,并显示出相当大的健康益处,为肥胖患者在短期内。本研究的目的是确定对减肥手术最常见的两种类型的效果,Roux-en-Y胃旁路术和腹腔镜胃束带手术,和病人的体重损失超过五年后的手术。在这方面的研究推测患者,五年手术后将在接受减肥手术有至少百分之三十的重量损失。

对减肥手术的背景和历史

减肥减肥手术的患者可在这个时候的两种主要类型是胃旁路手术,最常见的,被认为是黄金标准,和胃束带是胃旁路手术,常见但知名度越来越高的患者。胃旁路手术可以通过开放的方法,或通过腹腔镜技术,涉及手术减少胃袋的大小从一个成人的胃的正常大小的大小的鸡蛋。手术后严格的饮食必须遵循的头几个星期,让新的胃袋愈合。根据蛋黄酱诊所的工作人员(2010)你可以期待。胃旁路手术:减肥手术后的病人是不允许吃几天而手术治愈。之后他们逐渐允许有“液体”,然后“软”或果泥食品和最后“三个月定期食品”

对减肥手术的其他类型,最常用的是可调节胃束带系统包括一个限制环被放置在病人的胃上的影响使胃小,也通过开放的方法或采用腹腔镜技术进行介绍。胃带有一个生理盐水水库,是插入在皮肤下,并允许胃带的调整基本上决定多少食物被允许消耗。

弗林德斯代写Assignment:美国的肥胖

Bariatric weight loss surgery methods were first introduced in “1969” (Furtado, 2009, p. 308) and there are many types of gastric bypass surgery but the most common is the “laparoscopic roux en Y gastric bypass” (Christou, 2009, p.1). Laparoscopic roux en Y gastric bypass is used to make a small stomach and involves the surgical redirection of the small intestine farther down the intestinal tract. Because of the smaller stomach pouch much less food is able to be ingested and with the redirected small intestine there is a reduced ability to absorb calories from food causing weight loss.

Before a patient undergoes a laparoscopic roux en Y gastric bypass it is common practice for that patient to meet certain criteria to be considered a candidate for the procedure. In Patricia Choban’s (2002) study in the Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine: Bariatric surgery for morbid obesity: Why, who, when, how, where, and then what?, to be considered a candidate for bariatric weight loss surgery one must be morbidly obese with a body mass index of 40 or more or have a body mass index of 35 along with other obesity related co-morbidities (p. 899). If the patient is deemed a candidate than the patient is educated on what to expect after surgery and how their eating habits will be affected. Due to the reduction in the size of the stomach pouch and the redirected small intestine the patient experiences significant weight loss almost from the day of surgery. Most patients are happy with the result from the laparoscopic roux en Y gastric bypass but there are some considerations that must be contemplated before the patient undergoes bariatric weight loss surgery.

Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is the positioning of an adjustable band around the upper part of the stomach achieving a similar effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass of reducing the stomach pouch. But Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is less invasive than Roux-en-Y gastric bypass since the surgeon does not have to surgically resize the stomach and redirect the small intestine to achieve the desired result. The lap-band is an adjustable device that by adding or removing saline from the ring through an inserted port that is located just under the patient skin. The port is assessed by passing a needle through the skin and using a syringe to adjust the saline amount in the lap-band until the desired levels of weight lose is achieved.

As with any surgical procedure there are risks involved with the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure. According to Luís Carlos do Rego Furtado (2010) in the British Journal of Nursing: Procedure and outcomes of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass there are several possible complication form laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. These would include “leaks” of the new stomach pouch or the redirected small intestine that would need further surgery to repair. “Gastrogastric fistula” is an opening that forms between two areas of the digestive system that should not be there. “Small bowel obstruction/internal hernia” is a blockage in the small intestine that prevents food from passing through the digestive tract that can cause pain and hospitalization. “Liver laceration” is a traumatic injury to the liver in the form of a cut or tear. “Wound infection” is an infection at the surgical site that can be minor or life threatening. “Mortality” is the loss of one’s life due to complications of the surgical procedure (p.309).

According to Paul O’Brien (2004) in the ANZ Journal of Surgery: Obesity is a surgical disease: overview of obesity and bariatric surgery “laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding” has later complications in the form of the adjustable gastric band moving out of position, saline leak or gastric erosion (p.203). Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding should not be looked at as a quick and easy solution to the epidemic of obesity without weighing the possibility of complication and the necessity that patient’s adhere to their follow up appointments as they give “insight into late complications and the success of bariatric surgery” (Wolf, 2001, p. S114)

 

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