犯罪学论文代写:传统的经典理论的实证主义理论的诗句

犯罪学论文代写:传统的经典理论的实证主义理论的诗句

犯罪学论文代写:传统的经典理论的实证主义理论的诗句

选择经典与实证主义理论的原因是这两个理论是第二十世纪,在论证的基础上,研究了,如果,人能理解犯罪理论和辩论时,应对法律的差异,精神病学家和威慑(padhy,2006)。犯罪理论的出现,从犯罪学的研究(padhy,2006)。犯罪学是研究犯罪社会学的分支,利用统计学、心理学、法律和人体研究犯罪行为的科学研究(padhy,2006)。了解犯罪行为的影响,我们需要了解犯罪的定义,当一个人违反了法律意识到这之间的不同国家由于不同的文化和价值观(padhy,2006)。法律是由立法机关说的,因此犯罪是由这些法律机构决定的(弗莱彻,1985)决定的。历史上,贝卡利亚和本生在第十八世纪,出现了犯罪的古典传统,注重惩罚犯罪(padhy,2006)。在第十九世纪的科学启蒙,Lombroso带来了一个新的理论来讨论聚焦于刑事(padhy,2006)。实证主义的基础是基于理性的决定论与古典传统的基础上的。这种放弃个人选择和持有生物和心理素质的责任,给予新的考虑,因为法官对犯罪行为有了新的认识(padhy,2006)。

The reason for choosing Classical versus Positivist Theory is that these two theories were the basis of argument before the Twentieth Century, and, if studied, one could understand the discrepancies of crime theories and debates when dealing with the law, psychiatrists and deterrence(Padhy, 2006).Crime theories emerge from the study of criminology(Padhy, 2006). Criminology is a sociological branch of study utilising crime statistics, psychology and law and the scientific study of human bodies to research criminal behaviour(Padhy, 2006). To understand the implications of criminal behaviour, we need to understand crime, defined when a human being breaks the law realising this varies between countries due to different cultures and values(Padhy, 2006). The law is defined by what the legislature says, thus crime is determined by what these law agencies decide(Fletcher, 1985). Historically, Beccaria and Benthan in the Eighteenth Century emerged with the Classical Tradition of Crime, focussing on punishment and the crime committed(Padhy, 2006). In the Nineteenth Century with scientific enlightenment, Lombroso brought a new theory to discussion focussing on the criminal(Padhy, 2006). Positivism was based on determinism contrasting with Classical Tradition based on rationality. This forgoes individual choice and holds biological and psychological predisposition responsible, giving a new consideration for judges because of a new understanding on criminal behaviour(Padhy, 2006).

在讨论人性,古典理论家说个体具有选择的能力(贝卡利亚,1778)。人类能够参加任何活动不违背立法,给予自由选择(贝卡利亚,1778)。这是当人类把这个选择权,导致犯罪损害公民生命和自治(贝卡利亚,1778)。理论将犯罪视为违反安全造成中断和平的社会(贝卡利亚,1778)。古典理论家关注犯罪在犯罪本身的因变量,与实证主义主要集中于个体的独立变量,是什么造成了这种行为(Hirschi和内容,1990)。刑事古典学派提出了确定罪犯为理论基础的人类行为获得利益的目的,在立法的目的是促进和平和福利最大化(carnis,2004)。

In discussing the nature of human beings, Classical Theorists say that individuals possess the ability to make choices(Beccaria, 1778). Human beings are able to participate in any activity not contrary to legislation, giving free choice(Beccaria, 1778). It is when humans take this right of choice and cause damage to lives and autonomy of citizens that crime is committed(Beccaria, 1778). Both theories view crime as a breach of security causing an interruption to a peaceful society(Beccaria, 1778). Classical Theorists focus on the dependant variables of crime looking at the crime itself, compared to Positivism which focuses primarily on the independent variables of the individual and what caused this act(Hirschi & Gottfredson, 1990). The Classical School of Crime was developed for the purpose of defining criminals as rationale human beings acting to gain benefits, where legislation was aimed to increase peace and maximise welfare(Carnis, 2004).

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