Education Assignment 代写: 第二语言学习者作文评价

Education Assignment 代写: 第二语言学习者作文评价








This paper presents a study of the need to equitably assess students with diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds in the learning environment. In order to provide better educational environments for students with diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, this study looks into the importance of developing assessments that take diversity of student populations into account.

This paper examines the following:

Possible factors that contribute to fair assessment or equity in assessing a ELL.

The role of classroom based, performance- based assessment and self assessment in promoting learning for ELLs in schools that are increasingly under pressure to prepare these students to pass high stakes standardized tests.

Factors that help build an assessment system that eliminates educational inequities.

In this study, English language learner is defined as a student who speaks a language other than English at home, including both limited English proficient and former limited English proficient.

Education can be defined, then, as the “transfer of learning that is the application of what is learned in one domain or context to that of another domain or context” (Amrein & Berliner, 2002, p.10). But what types of assessments are able to capture or promote progress toward education?

Second-Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement

Cummins (1980,1981) has provided a much-needed framework in the field of bilingual and English as a second Language (ESL) education. His critical work reveals why ELL students’ academic achievement cannot be assessed in the same manner as that of their FEP (Fluent English Proficient) counterparts. He asserts that oral fluency cannot be regarded as academic competence in academic settings.

Cummins theorizes that there are two distinctively different proficiencies. Basic conversational language ability is acquired rapidly. ELL students take only a year or 2 to become proficient in conversational English (see also Hakuta, Butler, & Witt, 1999). In contrast, attaining grade level of academic English can take far longer, as long as 5 to 7 years. Academic English is necessary for tasks that are context reduced, such as reading chapters in a textbook that describes different math functions.

Foertsch (1998) describes second-language learning as an important factor that influences how children learn to read: “The ways in which children communicate in their home cultures are critical to the development of written language models of reading and writing. The home language of students provides the foundation for the emergence of reading and writing behaviours. If there is a mismatch between the structures, values, and expectations of the home language and school language, children may be at a disadvantage for success in early reading tasks, and thus spend their entire school careers attempting to catch up (Gay, 1988; Snow, 1992).

Research shows that language-minority students face many challenges in school. For example, they are 1.5 times more likely to drop out of school than native speakers (Cardenas, Robledo, & Waggoner, 1988). English-language learners also receive lower grades, are judged by their teachers to have lower academic abilities, and score below their classmates on standardized tests of reading and math (Moss & Puma, 1995).

It has long been recognized that a substantial achievement gap exists between language-minority students and native speakers of English (August & Hakuta, 1997; Silver, Smith, & Nelson, 1995). A significant gap in math scores, in particular, has caused widespread concern among educators (Khisty, 1997; secada, Fennema, & Adajian, 1995). Moreover, language-minority students are less likely to be represented in math-related majors in higher education, which affects their career opportunities and lifetime earnings (Bernardo, 2002; Cuevas, 1984; Torres & Zeidler, 2001). Apparently, math achievement plays a significant role in the academic and social stratification of minorities (Khisty, 1995; secada, 1992). Thus, English language learner (ELL) students’ math achievement-or lack thereof-should be explored in light of new ways ELL students are being assessed.

Education Assignment 代写: 第二语言学习者作文评价


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