Today, transportation is becoming the most significant problem in the world. Particularly, people who live in big cities are faced with this problem every day. Especially, the last three decades show that traditional transportation systems need to be replaced by railway systems because of major problems such as fast urbanization, intensive population growth, air pollution and energy shortages. Even tough, the first investment of the railway system costs is quite overpriced; operation and maintenance budgets are less expensive than road transportation system and air carriage. Moreover, if compared to all kind of transportation systems about the risk of accidents, energy consumption, traffic congestion and employment rate, railway transportation always has more advantages than the others in these fields. Railway transport is the most popular transportation system in the world, with the result that today all these conditions have accelerated the spread of railway transport. It is an important issue because railway is changing the social, economic and industrial life directly.
Railway systems have been used since the creation of the first railway rolling stock which includes all unpowered vehicles. (1)According to Bonnett (2005), ‘as early as the sixteenth century wooden wheeled carts were used in mines and quarries running on longitudinal timber rails.’ At the end of the eighteenth century, horse drawn trams were used to conveying both people and goods owing to the fact that these types of the rolling stocks were more popular than the others. (2)Freeman and Aldcroft (1985) stated that horse drawn tramways utilized in a number of European cities until the first steam motive engine power was created by George Stephenson in 1829 which was called rocket and designing the new steam motive engine drew approximately 13,000 kg with a speed of 22 miles per hour in the Liverpool-Manchester Railway Line. After this invention, this incredible success influenced not only the social life but also economic and industrial life with the result that the industrial revolution’s effectiveness expanded in the continental Europe. With the progressive of the industrial revolution, railway industry had been increased enormously until the at the end of the nineteenth century and the fact that people could easily travel between the industrial cities is due to in the meantime different type of the rolling stocks were designed for fast carrying.