Psychology Essay 代写 History Of Clinical Neuropsychology

Psychology Essay 代写 History Of Clinical Neuropsychology

Psychology Essay 代写 History Of Clinical Neuropsychology

临床神经心理学领域出现在本世纪中叶由于理解与脑关系的迫切需要,行为和认知,尤其是异常的脑功能,缺乏其他医学基础领域如神经(比格勒,1991)。然而,脑损伤及其相关行为的研究已经在19世纪后期开始,早在临床神经心理学的出现。当时的欧洲神经病学家和医生观察到的某些行为始终与局灶性脑病变,这些被称为大脑-行为关系(顿,1988)。从中可以看到布罗卡早期的工作(1865)和韦尼克(1874),它是将特定的脑病变与异常行为功能的目标,因此,定位成为临床神经心理学的基础。当然,没有现在的技术,为我们提供了非侵入性的方法以及神经心理学评估研究大脑和行为的关系,早期的神经病学家和医生都只能依靠患者死后大脑的分析。然而在上世纪70年代早期,定位是基于脑电图(EEG)、X射线和神经心理学评估,采取了之前进行(呜,2003)。幸运的是,随着结构成像,如X射线计算机断层扫描(CT)的出现和磁共振成像(MRI)和功能成像技术,如正电子发射断层扫描(PET)、单光子发射计算机断层扫描(SPECT)和功能性磁共振成像(fMRI),更多的相关性和前瞻性的研究来补充有限的结果事后分析,提供了(TRAMO,)。这是说,神经影像学检查方法,有助于临床神经心理学的作品。虽然看起来神经心理学家不再需要本地化的病理,许多人仍然做,这将是明显的在以后的文章。神经影像学技术没有信号的开始临床神经心理学相反,补充和协助的领域在发展一个更复杂的和先进的方法对诊断、定位和干预。

Psychology Essay 代写 History Of Clinical Neuropsychology


The field of clinical neuropsychology emerged in the mid-21st century as a result of an urgent need to understand the relationship between brain, behavior and cognition, particularly abnormal brain functioning, that were lacking in other medical-based fields such as neurology (Bigler, 1991). However, the study of brain impairments and their associated behaviors had already begun in the late 1800s, long before the emergence of clinical neuropsychology. European neurologists and physicians at that time observed certain behaviors were consistently associated with focal brain lesions and these are referred to as brain-behavior relationships (Benton, 1988). As can be seen from the early work of Broca (1865) and Wernicke (1874), it was the goal to associate specific brain lesions with abnormal behavioral functioning and hence, localization became the basis of clinical neuropsychology. Of course, without the technology now that offers us non-invasive methods as well as neuropsychological assessments to study brain-behavior relationships, early neurologists and physicians alike could only rely on post-mortem brain analyses of patients. In the early 1970s however, localizations were based on electroencephalograms (EEGs), X-rays and neuropsychological assessments that were conducted before neurosurgeries were carried out (Ruff, 2003). Fortunately, with the advent of structural imaging such as x-ray computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and functional imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI), more correlative and prospective research can be done to supplement the limited findings that post-mortem analyses had provided (Tramo,). This is to say that neuroimaging methods contribute a great deal to the works in clinical neuropsychology. Although it may seem that neuropsychologists are no longer required to localize pathology, many still do and this will be evident later on in this paper. Neuroimaging techniques do not signal the beginning of the end to clinical neuropsychology but on the contrary, complement and assist the field in developing a more sophisticated and advance approach towards diagnosing, localizations and interventions.

Practice of Clinical Neuropsychology

Clinical neuropsychology is defined by the APA Commission for the Recognition of Specialties and Proficiencies in Professional Psychology (CRSPPP) as a specialty of professional psychology that is dedicated to the understanding of brain-behavior relationships and clinical applications of that knowledge to human problems, in particular to persons with brain disorders (CRSPPP, 1996). Assessment represents the bulk of clinical neuropsychologists’ work. A broad-based knowledge of the different kinds of neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging is required. Neuropsychologists are involved selecting appropriate tests for administration which is dependent on the patient’s history, referral question and so on. Therefore, neuropsychologists

What are the localization theories?

How has localization theory helped?

  • Diagnosis
  • Neurobehavioral

Neuroimaging Methods

There are many neuroimaging technologies used and as said earlier, consist of two types: structural (e.g.: CT scan and MRI) and functional imaging (e.g: MEG, SPECT, PET and fMRI). Structural imaging provides structural images of the brain as well as the surrounding bone while functional imaging allows researchers to observe electrical and metabolic activity of the brain (Gazzaniga et al., 2002). These technologies differ in terms of their availability, methods of operation, spatial and temporal resolutions, invasiveness, and ability to detect abnormalities of brain structure, metabolism, and function (de Zubicaray, 2006).

Role of Neuroimaging in Clinical Neuropsychology

  • Language
  • Memory

Neuroimaging cannot replace neuropsychological assessment

Being able to simultaneously assess cognitive performance and brain function, neuroimaging has fast become a complementary method to traditional clinical neuropsychological techniques. It has improved the ability to localize lesions and diagnose disorders such as epilepsy and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (de Zubicaray, 2006). However, it is erroneous to assume that neuroimaging can act as a replacement for a more comprehensive neuropsychological assessment.

Cases where neuroimaging methods have not worked

  • how the cognitive process happens
  • normal neuroimaging results but with cognitive impairments (individual differences)

have oftentimes failed to take into account several variables that influence the interpretation of the data: (1) interindividual differences in gross brain morphology; ( 2 ) the inconsistent relationship of gross anatomical landmarks, which sometimes can and sometimes cannot be captured on routine imaging studies, to functional zones, as defined by cytoarchitectonics and electrophysiologic responsiveness; (3) lesion size and the proportion of spared tissue within regions of interest; and (4) dynamic pathophysiological factors pertaining to the etiology and onset of the lesion (Tramo,) Other areas of improvement to clinical neuropsychology treatment services; ecological testings Neuroimaging has provided an increased ability to connect neuroanatomical structure and function with clinical presentations. This has refined the understanding of the roles neural regions and circuitry play in specific neurocognitive and behavioral tasks, which in turn has lead to improvements in clinical practice. The field of clinical neuropsychology has undergone parallel changes with the advent of the improved ability to localize and determine lesions and structural anomalies. Many of the traditional neuropsychological instruments were originally designed to localize impairment or determine the presence or extent of brain damage. The improvements in neuroimaging have mandated change in the process of neuropsychological assessment to focus on the determination of functional implications of injury/illness and design of effective interventions and recommendations for rehabilitation. (Noggle et al., 2008)

Neuroimaging and Clinical Neuropsychological Practice.

de Zubicaray, Greig.

Snyder, Peter J (Ed); Nussbaum, Paul D (Ed); Robins, Diana L (Ed). (2006). Clinical neuropsychology: A pocket handbook for assessment, 2nd ed. (pp. 56-74). xxvi, 769 pp. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Neuropsychology and neuroimaging: Integrating and understanding structure and function in clinical practice.

Noggle, Chad A; Davis, Andrew S; Barisa, Mark.

D’Amato, Rik Carl (Ed); Hartlage, Lawrence C (Ed). (2008). Essentials of neuropsychological assessment: Treatment planning for rehabilitation (2nd ed.). (pp. 79-102). xviii, 342 pp. New York, NY, US: Springer Publishing Co.

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