澳洲心理学论文代写:关系导向

澳洲心理学论文代写:关系导向

关系导向的早期干预模式包括格林斯潘和Wieder的发展,个体差异,基于关系模型(DIR),Gutstein和Sheely的关系发展干预(RDI),和响应的教学(RT)课程由马奥尼等人开发的。此方法的重点(1)“地板时间”游戏和其他策略这是旨在改善人际关系和情感和社会互动来促进情绪和认知的增长和发展,(2)治疗修复“生物处理能力,如听觉和语言、运动规划和测序,感觉调节、视觉空间处理。公布的目录模型有效性的证据是有限的案件记录一个非盲法审查(有方法学上的缺陷,包括干预,文件不充分的一个次优的对照组比较,治疗缺乏完整的文档和结果由非正式程序评估)和一个小的子集(描述性的随访研究8%)对患者原有的组。RDI的重点活动引起的互动行为与目标吸引孩子的社会关系使他或她发现积极的人际交往活动的价值变得更主动地学习,要维持这些关系的能力。一些评论家称赞这种模式的有效性,其目标是社会互惠的核心障碍。然而,疗效RDI的证据是传闻;实证科学研究缺乏在这个时候。一项研究报道了RT儿童ASDs或其他发育障碍的有利影响。家长被教导使用RT策略,以鼓励他们的孩子获得和使用关键的发展行为(注意,持久性,兴趣,启动,合作,共同关注和影响)。两组儿童在非标准化显著提高游戏为主的认知和交际和社会情感功能规范母公司的评级办法。虽然对照组缺乏并行教育服务的潜在作用是不清楚的,进步是超出预期的作者从成熟的因素。

澳洲心理学论文代写:关系导向

Relationship-focused early intervention models include Greenspan and Wieder’s developmental, individual-difference, relationship-based (DIR) model, Gutstein and Sheely’s relationship-development intervention (RDI), and the responsive-teaching (RT) curriculum developed by Mahoney et al.The DIR approach focuses on (1) "floor-time" play sessions and other strategies that are purported to enhance relationships and emotional and social interactions to facilitate emotional and cognitive growth and development and (2) therapies to remediate "biologically based processing capacities," such as auditory processing and language, motor planning and sequencing, sensory modulation, and visual-spatial processing. Published evidence of the efficacy of the DIR model is limited to an unblinded review of case records (with significant methodologic flaws, including inadequate documentation of the intervention, comparison to a suboptimal control group, and lack of documentation of treatment integrity and how outcomes were assessed by informal procedures) and a descriptive follow-up study of a small subset (8%) of the original group of patients. RDI focuses on activities that elicit interactive behaviors with the goal of engaging the child in a social relationship so that he or she discovers the value of positive interpersonal activity and becomes more motivated to learn the skills necessary to sustain these relationships. Some reviewers have praised the face validity of this model, which targets the core impairment in social reciprocity. However, the evidence of efficacy of RDI is anecdotal; published empirical scientific research is lacking at this time. One study reported beneficial effects of RT on young children with ASDs or other developmental disabilities. Parents were taught to use RT strategies to encourage their children to acquire and use pivotal developmental behaviors (attention, persistence, interest, initiation, cooperation, joint attention, and affect). Children in both groups improved significantly on nonstandardized play-based measures of cognition and communication and standardized parent ratings of socioemotional functioning. Although a control group was lacking and the potential role of concurrent educational services was unclear, the improvements were beyond what the authors expected from maturational factors alone.

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注