澳洲美容学论文代写:人工边界

澳洲美容学论文代写:人工边界

然而,这是建立在开发和推广语?坦桑尼亚与其他新兴国家在非洲继承了人工边界,任意强加的殖民者强迫和包含一个多样性的民族和语言群体(弗格森2006)。这种语言的多样性在非洲是不是一般经历了一个重大的困境或问题在基层。大多数非洲人趋于社会化为语言习惯和做法,从早期的年龄。语言是现实的非洲语言弗兰卡(弗格森2006)。虽然语言规划往往发生在多语种的国家如坦桑尼亚,使得判决以什么语言会有什么功能,多语言规划起源于欧洲,是基于欧洲的理想、原则和标准,有志于在同一个国家的官方语言建立国家(弗格森2006,辛格2000)。试图统一坦桑尼亚,挣脱殖民关系对这些欧洲理想的基础上,在坦桑尼亚语言规划者似乎采取了很欧洲的蓝图和强加给非洲社会(弗格森2006)。 舞台上,希望把这些欧洲理想造成了最关注的问题,争议,和采取了坦桑尼亚政府的努力是相同的领域,可能是最关键的所有有关语言规划的领域,即教育(弗格森2006,SA 2007)。一个部门,在大多数国家资助和控制的状态下,通过学校教育提供了状态的能力塑造和操纵的态度、心态,以及随后产生的行为,往往是在国家转型过程中的一个关键因素(弗格森2006)。在新出现的独立的多语言的非洲州的关键问题和困境是选择的媒体,将在学校(弗格森2006,SA 2007)的选择。同样的障碍,选择一个民族土著语言被用来在更广泛的社会,适用于教育领域,在大多数情况下,默认为旧殖民主义语言,除了在一个国家,如坦桑尼亚.

澳洲美容学论文代写:人工边界

However, what was this development and promotion of Swahili founded upon? Tanzania similarly to the other new emerging states in Africa inherited artificial, arbitrary borders imposed and enforced by the colonisers and encompassed a diversity of ethnic and linguistic groups (Ferguson 2006). This linguistic diversity in Africa is not in general experienced as a substantial predicament or problem at the grassroots level. Most Africans tend to be socialised into multilingual habits and practices from an early age. Multilingualism is in reality the African lingua franca (Ferguson 2006). Although language planning often takes place in multilingual societies such as Tanzania and makes verdicts as to what language will serve what function, much of language planning originates in Europe and is based on European ideals, principles, and standards, aspiring to establish states with one and the same national and official language (Ferguson 2006, Singh 2000). Endeavouring to unify Tanzania and break free from colonial ties on the basis of these European ideals, language planners in Tanzania had seemingly taken a very European blue print and imposed it on African society (Ferguson 2006).
The arena in which the wish to impose these European ideals has caused the most concern, controversy, and taken up the efforts of the Tanzanian government is the same arena that is probably the most crucial to all involved in the domain of language planning, namely education (Ferguson 2006, Sa 2007). A sector that is in most countries sponsored and under the control of the state, education by means of schools affords the state the capacity to mold and manipulate the attitudes, mind-sets, and behaviours of the subsequent generation and is often a key element in the process of national transformation (Ferguson 2006). The crucial issue and dilemma in the newly emergent independent multilingual states of Africa was the choice of the medium of instruction that would be employed in schools (Ferguson 2006, Sa 2007). The same barriers to choosing an ethnic indigenous language to be used in the wider society applied to the sphere of education and for the most part left the default as the old colonial language except in a country like Tanzania

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