One advantage for the French was the death of England’s king Edward III in 1377. His successor, Richard III focused little attention on the affairs in France during his reign, but instead attempted to weaken the authority of the English aristocracy. In response to this, in 1399 Parliament dethroned Richard and appointed Henry IV in his place. This act clearly demonstrated the growing influence of parliament in the country’s affairs. As one author points out, “This incident demonstrates the power and limitations of Parliament during the late Middle Ages. Even though the Houses merely confirmed the wishes of the magnates, these great lords appreciated the importance of receiving parliamentary approval for their actions.”8 Yet, because Henry the IV was preoccupied with certain situations in England, France was able to regain more territory in their own country. It was also near this time, by 1384, that Wycliffe completed his translation of the Latin Vulgate scriptures into English. This helped prepare the way for the reformation and also allowed for the printing of the Bible in English when the press was invented by Gutenberg just two years after the end of the Hundred Year War. But France experienced trouble once again upon the death of their king, Charles V. His son who succeeded him, Charles VI (also called Charles VI the mad), was mentally ill. Tensions within the country between different houses allowed England’s King Henry V to begin regaining lost ground. The defeat of the French at Agincourt in 1415 solidified his position. The French loss at Agincourt was due to similar tactics that brought about their destruction by the English in the battles of Crecy and Poitiers.