Despite agreeing with this principle, experts have identified difficulties that could occur by implementing the constructivist teaching and learning theories. Keogh & Naylor (1996) have questioned the plausibility of considering the prior knowledge of every pupil, and Skidmore & Gallagher (2005) acknowledged the difficulties that a change in approach might present to teachers. In her research report, Chin (2006) discusses difficulties between balancing the responsibility of teachers as providers of accurate scientific facts with them being facilitators of child-initiated learning. Considering each of these experts’ reservations means viewing constructivist teaching and learning in science as a challenging process where the acquisition of scientific knowledge is the main goal that can be achieved through the amalgamation of an understanding of children’s developmental processes and the commitment from teachers to providing opportunities for personal enquiry with sound subject knowledge.In summary, teachers need to first recognize that ‘children are not empty vessels’ but that they have a valuable wealth of scientific knowledge and experience on which to construct and adapt new ideas. Teachers should embrace and nurture curiosity, promote critical thinking and provide creative learning environments (TDA., 2008, Q8) that facilitate purposeful exploration and social interaction. Careful consideration has to be given towards the National Curriculum for Science objectives; however, as is often the case with preparation for statutory testing (The Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, 2003), it should not be seen as a constraint that restricts creativity or that initiates a return to the meaningless rote learning strategies of the past (Stones, 1984, pg.64). Assessment opportunities should be explored, and the results used effectively to inform and enable an inclusive, personalised curriculum that allows children to become active participants with ownership of their own learning.