澳洲assignment 代写范文：伯明翰的大学本科生（N = X女）自愿参与本研究（平均年龄Â±标准偏差年龄= xÂ±X年。；范围= X X年）。93名学生志愿者进行巨细胞病毒（CMV）感染之间的选择。从这个样本的血清抗体阳性（x）和阴性（x）随机邀请参加应力研究。受试者是通过口碑，广告在medsoc公告并通过电子邮件发送给所有招聘大学生从学校体育和运动科学。参加者提供货币支付£5初步筛选的血液样本，进一步£15 /£20如果自愿参加的应力研究后，邀请。该学生提供3学分小时全程参与而不是。参与者被排除如果他们）报道任何健康问题，即目前患有传染病或心血管疾病；b）如果他们采取任何处方药物（包括避孕药），或；C）是哮喘，因此需要一个吸入器的使用。从第一阶段选定的参加者进一步指示；一）禁止吸烟，进食和以旺盛的活动力试验前一小时的一部分；b）戒绝饮酒在过去12小时内；c）不在过去的两个小时的压力任务的第二阶段之前消耗咖啡因。这项研究是由运动和运动科学学院伦理审查委员会批准的。数据收集在一月和3月之间的2011和书面同意，收集从参与者之前，任何访问。
受试者被邀请来体育和运动科学实验室的学校有一个初步的血液样本。静脉血样本用Becton和迪克森安全锁针，使血液被稀释至4ml vacutainers收集（Becton Dickerson）涂有乙二胺四乙酸（EDTA）作为抗凝剂。血浆中提取的血液样本，通过离心在24000分钟的转速为十五分钟。分别分为epindorhs等离子体并储存在零下60摄氏度。CMV状态测试后，参与者被邀请回随血清阴性的年龄和性别匹配的对照样品。
X Birmingham University undergraduates (n = x women ) voluntarily participated in this present study (mean age Â± standard deviation age = x Â± x years.; range = x – x years). Participants were selected among 93 student volunteers who were tested for cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus. From this sample both sero-positive (x ) and -negative (x) were randomly invited to take part in the stress study . Participants were recruited via word-of-mouth, advertisements in the MedSoc Bulletin and also via recruitment emails sent to all undergraduates from the School of Sport and Exercise Sciences. Participants were offered a monetary payment of £5 for the initial screening blood sample and a further £15/£20 if volunteering to participate in the stress study after invitation. Sportex students were offered 3 course credit hours for full participation instead. Participants were excluded if they a) reported any health problems, i.e., were currently suffering from an infectious or cardiovascular disease; b) if they took any prescribed medication (except the contraceptive pill), or; c) were asthmatic and therefore required the use of an inhaler. Participants selected from the first stage were then further instructed to; a) refrain from smoking, eating and taking part in vigorous activity one hour prior to the stress experiment; b) abstain from alcohol consumption in the previous 12 hours; c) not to consume caffeine in the last two hours prior to the second stage of the stress task. The study was approved by the ethical review committee of the School of Sport and Exercise Sciences. Data were collected between January and March 2011 and written consent was collect from participants prior to any visit.
Participants were invited to come to the School of Sport and Exercise Sciences laboratory to have an initial blood sample taken. A venous blood sample was taken using Becton and Dickerson safety lock needles, whereby blood was collected in 4ml vacutainers (Becton Dickerson) coated with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as an anticoagulant. Plasma was extracted from the blood sample through centrifugation at 24000 RPM for fifteen minutes. 0.5ml of plasma was then divided into epindorhs and stored at -60 degrees. After testing for CMV status, participants who were seropositive were invited back along with a seronegative age and sex matched controlled sample.
Procedures stress experiment
Participants were therefore asked to return and complete a 2 hour testing session that took place between 10am and 6pm.Upon arrival, participants signed informed consent and electrodes for impedance cardiography (ICG) and electrocardiography (ECG) were attached by the experimenter. The participant was then seated in a comfortable chair in front of a television screen and was asked to maintain a stable posture throughout the task to minimise movement. A 19-Gauge indwelling catheter was placed into a vein of the non-dominant arm or the other if preferred by participant. A blood pressure cuff was then attached to the opposite arm to the catheter for measurement throughout the speech tasks. A twenty-minute resting baseline period then followed where the participant was required to complete two questionnaires and was allowed to read a magazine or newspaper. At the end of this baseline period, the first blood sample was taken and the task procedure commenced as described below. See appendix XX for further details of task procedure.
2.3 Stress Task
This stress task entailed two speeches that were performed back to back, both with a two minute preparation four minutes of delivery. (Bosch, de Geus, Veerman, Hoogstraten & Nieuw Amerongen 2003 & Bosch, Berntson, Cacioppo & Marucha 2005). The first speech task required the participant to convincingly argue that they had been accused wrongly of stealing an item from a shop (Saab, Matthews, Stoney & McDonald,1989).(For detailed description of all task instructions see appendix 1)
The second task involved the participant having to describe three of their best and three of their worst personal characteristics (van Eck, Nicolson, Berkhof & Sulon 1996) . The instructions and timing and of the task was standardised so each participant received the same information, achieved by having the instructions recorded on a DVD and played on a TV screen. Including instructions, the speech task took a total of fifteen minutes.
Prior to the speech task, participants were informed that there would be an audience of four people (two male two female) who have been trained to judge and evaluate the quality of their speech and would be comparing it to the performance of other participants. They were told that the audience would not be asking any questions and would not answer the participant’s questions. The details of the speech task were disclosed until the point where the task preparation was about to begin in order to keep anticipatory arousal levels low. Once the task had been fully described, the audience members entered the testing room and seated themselves in front of the participant. The audience was instructed to keep a somber and stoic but not hostile, demeanor towards the participant (Gruenewald, Kemeny, Aziz & Fahey 2004). If a participant stopped speaking for longer than twenty seconds, the experimenter would prompt to continue with the speech as instructed. Two minutes before the task was completed, a second blood sample was drawn. After completion of the task the audience left the room. A third questionnaire was administered 15 minutes after the task recovery period of light reading took place as well as the final questionnaire being completed. Throughout the task, cardiac activity was also recorded continuously. Please see Appendix XX for further details of task instructions.
2.4 Cardiovascular Assessment
Cardiovascular responses were assessed by focusing on both parasympathetic (vagal) and cardiac sympathetic control (Berntson, Cacioppo, & Quigley 1993). Vagal and sympathetic drive indices were acquired through analysing ICG (thoracic signals) and ECG signals (Sherwood, Allen, Fahrenberg, Kelsey, Lovallo & van Doornen 1990). ECG and ICG signals were continuously monitored and recorded using six Ag/AgCI spot Electrodes (AMI type 1650-005, Medtronic) using the Vrije Univeriteit Ambulatory Monitoring System (VU-AMS, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands) (Willemsen, De Geus, Klaver, Van Doornen & Carroll 1996) The reliability displayed by the VU-AMS device has been reported by various others (de Geus, Willemsen, Klaver, & van Doornen, 1995; de Geus & van Doornen & Carroll 1996). With referral to the ECG R wave across 30 second time points, ensemble averages of ECG and ICG complexes were made. Using these 30 second time points, average levels of preejection period (PEP), heart rate (HR), the Root Mean Square of Successive Differences (RMSSD), respiratory depth (tidal volume), respiratory frequency and the Root Mean Square of Successive Differences (RMSSD) were computed. The thirty second time means were then averaged for the six minutes of baseline pre-task, the six minutes of stressor ( including the two minute preparation period), and also six minutes of recovery (fifteen minutes post task) (Bosch, Berntson, Cacioppo, Marucha 2003 & Bosch , Berntson, Cacioppo , Dhabhar & Marucha 2003). RMSSD was used a measurement of the cardiac parasympathetic activity and PEP was then used as a marker of cardiac sympathetic drive (Berntson, Cacioppo, Binkley, Uchino, Quigle & Fieldstone 1994). Blood pressure was monitored throughout baseline, stressor task and recovery using Omron MX2 Digital Automatic Upper Arm Blood Pressure Monitor.
Heart Rate Variability
2.5 Psychological Measures – Questionnaires
The Test Anxiety Scale ( Sarason & Stoops 1978) is a 37-item (‘true’/’false’) questionnaire, which assesses anxiety in a situation-specific personality trait (Î± = x). The Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (Leary 1983) is a 12-item questionnaire using a 4 point Likert scale (ranging from; 1 = Very little to 4 = Much) that provides an index of social anxiety (Î± = x). Administered pre and post task was the twenty item State Self-Esteem Scale (Heatherton, Polivy, Herman 1991). Participants were required to state their current feelings and thoughts regarding their social self esteem, performance and confidence using a five point Likert scale (1= Not at all to 5 = Extremely). In this study, all three of the subscales were used (Performance Î±pre = x, Î±post = x, Social Î±= x, Î±post = x, confidence Î±pre = x, Î±post ). A 40-item Affect Balance Scale (Derogatis, Yevzeroff, & Wittelsberger 1975) (Likert format; 1=Not at all to %= Very Strong) was administered to the participants during both pre and post task measuring both positive and negative affect. Participants were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire rating their emotions and expectations pre-task and also post-task. The pre and postask questionnaires were supplemented by 7 single item questions (using a 7point Likert scale) assessing difficulty, stressfulness, arousal, performance, embarrassment, confusion and engagement. In order to assess pride, shame and guilt, participants were required to complete the State Shame and Guilt Scale (SSGS) (Marschall et al 1994) which is a five point scale from “not feeling this way at all” to “feeling this way very strongly”.
2.5 Psychological Measures – Questionnaires
A 44 item Big Five Inventory Personality Test (1=disagree to 5=agree) was administered to assess individuals emotional stability,conscientiousness, agreeableness, intellect and surgency (John & Srivastava, 1999). Participants were then asked to complete the 21 item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-||) to measure their current levels of depression (Beck, Ward & Mendelson 1961). A further 20 item questionnaire to assess depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was also administered (where a high score = high depression) (Radloff 1977). The Profile of Mood States (POMS), is a 65 item questionnaire ( with a 5-point Likert Scale.) and measures
For the present study, we analysed the negative affect subscale anxiety subscale (e.g. nervous,timid,anxious Î±pre = x Î±post = x), and the shame/anxietyt subscale. Additional questionnaires (2c, 1d )were also included to measureâ€¦. See appendix XX for details.
2.6 Data Analysis. (What we will do)
Baseline differences were initially compared using a series of univariate analyses of variance (ANOVA’s). Repeated-measures multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA’s) was used to examine the psychological and physiological responses which treated the different sampling times (pretask, postask for psychological variables; baseline, task 1, task 2, recovery for cardiovascular and autonomic variables) a within-subject factor and (CMV status/psychological factors) as a between-subject factor.
Seperate Time x (CMV status/psychological factors) ANCOVA’s compared the responses during each condition in a pairwise fashion. Any subjects with irregular/abnormal readings were excluded . Data were analysed using SPSS 18 for Windows (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois)